b.c., in the land of Lu, in asmall village, situated in the western part of the modern province ofShantung. His name was K'ung Ch'iu, and his style (corresponding toour Christian name) was Chung-ni. His countrymen speak of him as K'ungFu-tzu, the Master, or philosopher K'ung. This expression was alteredinto Confucius by the Jesuit missionaries who first carried his fameto Europe.
Since the golden days of the Emperors Yao and Shun, the legendaryfounders of the Chinese Empire, nearly two thousand years had passed.Shun chose as his successor Yü, who had been his chief minister, a manwhose devotion to duty was such that when engaged in draining theempire of the great flood—a task that took eight years toaccomplish—he never entered his home till the work was done, althoughin the course of his labours he had thrice to pass his door. Hefounded the Hsia dynasty, which lasted till 1766 b.c. The last emperorof this line, a vile tyrant, was overthrown by T'ang, who became thefirst ruler of the house of Shang, or Yin. This dynasty againdegenerated in course of time and came to an end in Chou, or Chou Hsin[viii](1154-22 b.c.), a monster of lust, extravagance, and cruelty. Theempire was only held together by the strength and wisdom of the Dukeof Chou, or King Wen, to give him his popular title, one of thegreatest men in Chinese history. He controlled two-thirds of theempire; but, believing that the people were not yet ready for achange, he refrained from dethroning the emperor. In his day 'thehusbandman paid one in nine; the pay of the officers was hereditary;men were questioned at barriers and at markets, but there were notolls; fishgarths were not preserved; the children of criminals weresackless. The old and wifeless—the widower; the old andhusbandless—the widow; the old and childless—the lone one; the youngand fatherless—the orphan; these four are the people most in needbelow heaven, and they have no one to whom to cry, so when King Wenreigned his love went out first to them' (Mencius, Book II, chapter5). After his death, his son, King Wu, decided that the nation wasripe for change. He overcame Chou Hsin by force of arms, and, placinghimself on the throne, became the founder of the Chou dynasty.
In the time of Confucius the Chou dynasty still filled the throne. Butit had long since become effete, and all power had passed into thehands of the great vassals. The condition of China was much like thatof Germany in the worst days of the Holy Roman Empire. The emperor waspowerless, the various vassal states were independent in all but name,and often at war one with the other. These states again were[ix]disintegrated, and their rulers impotent against encroachingfeudatories. In Confucius' native state, Lu, the duke was a mereshadow. The younger branches of his house had usurped all power. Threein number, they were called the Three Clans. The most important of thethree was the Chi, or Chi-sun clan, whose chiefs Chi Huan and ChiK'ang are often mentioned by Confucius. But the power of the Chi, too,was ill-secured. The minister Yang Huo overawed his master, and onceeven threw him into prison. Nor was the condition of the other statesof the empire better than that of Lu. Confucius thought it worse.
Into this turbulent world Confucius was born. Though his father wasonly a poor military officer, he could trace his descent from theimperial house of Yin. Confucius married at nineteen, and is known tohave had one son and one daughter. Shortly after his marriage heentered the service of the state as keeper of the granary. A yearlater he was put in charge of the public fields. In 527 b.c. hismother died, and, in obedience to Chinese custom, he had to retirefrom public life. When the years of mourning were over, he did notagain take office, but devoted himself instead to study and teaching.As the years rolled by his fame grew, and a band of pupils gatheredround him. In 517 b.c. the anarchy in Lu reached such a pitch thatConfucius moved to the neighbouring land of Ch'i. Here he had severalinterviews with the reigning duke, but met with little encouragement(xviii. 3). So he soon returned to his native country, and resumed forfifteen years his work as student and teacher.[x]
During these fifteen years the power of the duke sank lower and lower,and the Chi was menaced by his minister Yang Huo. In times so dark,men that loved quiet sought in the world of thought an escape from thegloom around them, whilst others that were less resigned turned overin their minds the causes of the realm's decay. Lao-tzu, the founderof the mystic Taoist philosophy, taught that in inaction alone peacecan be found; Mo-tzu proclaimed the doctrine of universal love: thatwe should love all men as we love self, love the parents of others aswe love our own parents. Upright men were driven or fled from theworld. Confucius often met them in his wanderings, and was reprovedfor not doing as they did. But his practical mind told him thatinaction could not help the world, and that to find a remedy for thenation's ills, their cause must first be learned. This could only bedone by historical study. He therefore devoted himself to the study ofpast times, edited in later life the Book of History, and compiledthe work called Spring and Autumn, a history of his native statefrom 722 to 481 b.c. To bring again the golden days of Yao and Shun areturn must be made to the principles of Wen and Wu, the kings thathad rebuilt the empire after tyranny and selfishness had laid it low.Of impracticable ideals and renunciation of the world no good couldcome.
At last in 501 b.c. Yang Huo was forced to flee from Lu, and prospectsbrightened. A year later Confucius was appointed governor of a town.So[xi] great was his success as governor that before long he was promotedto be Superintendent of Works, and then to be Chief Criminal Judge. Hewon great influence with his master, and did much to lighten thegeneral misery. He so strengthened the power of the duke thatneighbouring states grew jealous. To sow dissension between duke andminister the men of Ch'i sent the duke a gift of singing girls. Suchjoy they gave him that for three days no court was held. On thisConfucius left the land, 497 b.c.
For the next thirteen years Confucius wandered from land to land,followed by his disciples, seeking in vain for a ruler that waswilling to employ him, and whom he was willing to serve. At times hewas exposed to danger, at other times to want. But as a rule he wastreated with consideration, although his teachings were ignored. Yetthirteen years of homeless wandering, of hopes deferred andfrustrated, must have been hard to bear. When he left office Confuciuswas already fifty-three years old, and his life so far seemed afailure. The sense of his wasted powers may well have tempted him nowand again to take office under an unworthy ruler; but knowing that nogood could come of it he refrained, and probably he never seriouslythought of doing so.
In 483 b.c., when Confucius was sixty-six years old, through theinfluence of his disciple Jan Yu, who was in the service of the Chi,the Master was invited to return to his native land. Here he[xii] remainedtill his death in 479 b.c. He had many interviews with the reigningduke and the head of the Chi clan, but gained no influence over eitherof them. So he turned once more to his favourite studies; edited theBook of Poetry—perhaps the most interesting collection of ancientsongs extant—and wrote Spring and Autumn. His closing years weredarkened by the loss of those dearest to him. First his son died, thenYen Yüan, the disciple whom he loved best. At his death the Master wasovercome by grief, and he left none behind him that loved learning.Lastly Tzu-lu, the frank and bold, was killed in battle. A littlelater, in his seventy-first year, Confucius himself passed away, 479b.c.
This book of the Master's Sayings is believed by the Chinese to havebeen written by the disciples of Confucius. But there is nothing toprove this, and some passages in the book point the other way. Book viii speaks of the death of Tseng-tzu, who did not die till 437 b.c.,forty-two years after the Master. The chief authority for the text asit stands to-day is a manuscript found in the house of Confucius in150 b.c., hidden there, in all likelihood, between the years 213 and211 b.c., when the reigning emperor was seeking to destroy every copyof the classics. We find no earlier reference to the book under itspresent name. But Mencius (372-289 b.c.) quotes seven passages fromit, in language all but identical with the present text, as the wordsof Confucius. No man ever talked the language of these sayings. Suchpith and smoothness is only reached by a long[xiii] process of rounding andpolishing. We shall probably come no nearer to the truth than Legge'sconclusion that the book was put together by the pupils of thedisciples of Confucius, from the words and notebooks of their masters,about the year 400 b.c.
LEONARD A. LYALL.
 According to the great historian Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Otherauthorities say, 552 and 551 b.c.
Dates I have taken from Legge, Hirth and other standard authors.
In Chinese names, consonants are generally pronounced as in English,vowels as in Italian.
E, when not joined with i, is pronounced nearly as German ö, ormuch as u in English luck.
Chih and Shih rhyme approximately with her. Tzu is pronouncedmuch as sir in the vulgar yessir, but with a hissing soundprefixed.
2. Yu-tzu said. Few men that are good sons and good brothers arefond of withstanding those over them. A man that is not fond ofwithstanding those over him and is yet fond of broils is nowherefound. A gentleman heeds the roots. When the root has taken, the Wayis born. And to be a good son and a good brother, is not that the rootof love?
3. The Master said, Smooth words and fawning looks are seldom foundwith love.
4. Tseng-tzu said, Thrice daily I ask myself: In dealing forothers, have I been unfaithful? Have I been untrue to friends? Do Ipractise what I preach?
5. The Master said, To guide a land of a thousand chariots, honourbusiness and be true; spend little and love men; time thy calls on thepeople.
6. The Master said, The young should be dutiful at home, modestabroad, careful and true, overflowing in kindness for all, but inbrotherhood with love. And if they have strength to spare they shouldspend it on the arts.
7. Tzu-hsia said, If a man eschews beauty and honours worth, if heserves his father and mother with all his strength, if he is ready togive his life for his lord, and keeps faith with his friends, thoughothers may say he has no learning, I must call him learned.
8. The Master said, A gentleman will not be looked up to unless he isstaid, nor will his learning be sound. Put faithfulness and truthfirst; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thyfaults.
9. Tseng-tzu said, Heed the dead, follow up the past, and the soulof the people will again grow great.
10. Tzu-ch'in said to Tzu-kung, When he comes to a country theMaster always hears how it is governed; does he ask, or is it toldhim?
Tzu-kung said, The Master gets it by his warmth and honesty, bypoliteness, modesty and yielding. The way the Master asks is unlikeother men's asking.
11. The Master said, Whilst thy father lives look for his purpose;when he is gone, look how he walked. To change nothing in thy father'sways for three years may be called pious.
12, Yu-tzu said, To behave with ease is the best part of courtesy.This was the beauty of the old kings' ways; this they followed insmall and great. But knowing this, it will not do to give way to ease,unchecked by courtesy. This too is wrong.
13. Yu-tzu said, If pledges are close to right, word can be kept. Ifattentions are close to courtesy, shame will be kept far. If we do notchoose our leaders wrong, we may worship them too.
14. The Master said, A gentleman that does not seek to eat his fill,nor look for ease in his home, who is earnest at work and careful ofspeech, who walks with those that keep the Way, and is guided by them,may be said to love learning.
15. Tzu-kung said, Poor, but no flatterer; rich, but not proud: howwould that be?
It would do, said the Master; but better still were poor but merry;rich, but loving courtesy.
Tzu-kung said, When the poem says:
is that what is meant?
If ye cut, if ye file,If ye polish and grind,
The Master said, Now I can begin to talk of poetry to Tz'u. Tell himwhat is gone, and he knows what shall come.
16. The Master said, Not to be known is no sorrow. My sorrow is notknowing men.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
2. The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the oneline, Think no evil.
3. The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment;they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind,aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame and grow good.
4. The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, Icould stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood theheavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, Icould do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.
5. Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Not to transgress.
As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun askedme the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress.
What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih.
To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to burythem with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.
6. Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother byanything but illness.
7. Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a goodson. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour ourparents, what is the difference?
8. Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be astay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this tofulfil their duty?
9. The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, henever differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone,he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!
10. The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; searchwhat pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?
11. The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes theteacher.
12. The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.
13. Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?
The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these upwith words.
14. The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small mantakes sides and is narrow.
15. The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thoughtwithout learning is dangerous.
16. The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.
17. The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? Toknow what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.
18. Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay.
The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speakwarily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leaveall that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, andthou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, andthy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.
19. Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people?
Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; andthe people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight;and the people will not be won.
20. Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful andpainstaking.
The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a goodson and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teachthe unskilled, and they will take pains.
21. One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir?
The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be agood son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.'This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?
22. The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is!A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they bemoved?
23. Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be tengenerations hence.
The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; theharm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took overthe manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them canbe known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generationshence, whoever follows Chou.
24. The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us isfawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.
 Lit., obedient.
 A disciple.
 Meng Yi.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 The disciple Yen Yüan.
 A disciple.
 The disciple Tzu-lu.
 A disciple.
 Of Lu.
 The head of the Chi clan.
 The Book of History.
 A disciple.
 Up to the time of Confucius, China had been ruled bythree lines of kings. First the T'ang, next the Yin or Shang, then theChou.
 in his courtyard,Confucius said, If this is to be borne, what is not to be borne?
2. When the sacrifice was ended, the Three Clans had the Yung hymnsung.
The Master said,
what meaning has this in the courtyard of the Three Clans?
Princes and dukes assist.Solemn is the Son of heaven;
3. The Master said, A man without love, what is courtesy to him? A manwithout love, what is music to him?
4. Lin Fang asked what good form is at root.
The Master said, A big question! At high-tides, thrift is better thanwaste; at burials, grief is worth more than nicety.
5. The Master said, Every wild tribe has its lord, whereas the landsof Hsia have none!
6. The Chi sacrificed to Mount T'ai.
The Master said to Jan Yu, Canst thou not stop this?
He answered, I cannot.
Alas! said the Master; dost thou think Mount T'ai less wise than LinFang?
7. The Master said, A gentleman never strives with others. Or must he,perhaps, in shooting? But then, as he bows and makes way in going upor steps down to drink, his strife is that of a gentleman.
8. Tzu-hsia asked, What is the meaning of:
Colouring, said the Master, is second to the plain ground.
Her cunning smiles,Her dimples light,Her lovely eyes,So clear and bright,All unadorned,The background white.
Then good form is second, said Tzu-hsia.
Shang, said the Master, thou hast hit my meaning! Now I can talkof poetry to thee.
9. The Master said, I can speak of the manners of Hsia; but as proofof them Chi is not enough. I can speak of the manners of Yin; butas proof of them Sung is not enough. This is due to their dearth ofbooks and great men. If there were enough of these, I could use themas proofs.
10. The Master said, After the drink offering at the Great Sacrifice,I have no wish to see more.
11. One asked the meaning of the Great Sacrifice.
The Master said, I do not know. He that knew the meaning wouldoverlook all below heaven as I do this—and he pointed to his palm.
12. He worshipped as if those whom he worshipped were before him; heworshipped the spirits as if they were before him.
The Master said: For me, to take no part in the sacrifice is the sameas not sacrificing.
13. Wang-sun Chia said, What is the meaning of, It is better tocourt the hearth-god than the god of the home?
Not so, said the Master. A sin against Heaven leaves no room forprayer.
14. The Master said, Chou looks back on two lines of kings. Howrich, how rich it is in art! I follow Chou.
15. On going into the Great Temple the Master asked about everything.
One said, Who says that the Tsou man's son knows the rites? On goinginto the Great Temple he asked about everything.
When he heard this, the Master said, Such is the rite.
16. The Master said, In shooting, the arrow need not go right throughthe target, for men are not the same in strength. This was the oldrule.
17. Tzu-kung wished to do away with the sheep offering at the newmoon.
The Master said, Thou lovest the sheep, Tz'u: I love the rite.
18. The Master said: Serve the king with all courtesy, men call itfawning.
19. Duke Ting asked how a lord should treat his lieges, and how liegesshould serve their lord.
Confucius answered, The lord should treat his lieges with courtesy;lieges should serve their lord faithfully.
20. The Master said, The poem The Osprey is glad, but not wanton; itis sad, but not morbid.
21. Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the earth-altars.
Tsai Wo answered, The Emperors of the house of Hsia grew firs roundthem; the men of Yin grew cypress; the men of Chou grew chestnut,which was to say, Let the people tremble.
On hearing this, the Master said, I do not speak of what is ended,chide what is settled, or find fault with what is past.
22. The Master said, How shallow was Kuan Chung!
But, said one, was not Kuan Chung thrifty?
The Kuan, said the Master, owned San Kuei, and no one of his householdheld two posts: was that thrift?
At least Kuan Chung knew good form.
The Master said, Kings screen their gates with trees; the Kuan, too,had trees to screen his gate. When two kings are carousing, they havea stand for the turned-down cups; the Kuan had a turned-downcup-stand, too! If the Kuan knew good form, who does not know goodform?
23. The Master said to the Great Master of Lu, We can learn how toplay music; at first each part in unison; then a swell of harmony,each part distinct, rolling on to the finish.
24. The warden of Yi asked to see Confucius, saying, No gentleman hasever come here whom I have failed to see.
The followers took him in.
On leaving he said, My two-three boys, why lament your fall? The Wayhas long been lost below heaven! Now Heaven shall make the Master intoa warning bell.
25. The Master said of the music of Shao, It is thoroughly beautiful,and thoroughly good, too. Of the music of Wu, he said, It isthoroughly beautiful, but not thoroughly good.
26. The Master said, Rank without beauty; ceremony without reverence;mourning without grief, why should I cast them a glance?
 An Imperial prerogative.
 A prerogative of the Duke of Lu.
 A disciple in the service of the Chi.
 The loser had to drink a cup of wine.
 Chi was the homeland of the House of Hsia, Sung that ofthe House of Yin.
 Wang-sun Chia was minister of Wei, and had moreinfluence than his master. The hearth-god ranks below the god of thehome (the Roman lares), but since he sees all that goes on in thehouse, and ascends to heaven at the end of the year to report what hashappened, it is well to be on good terms with him.
 The royal house of Chou, which was then ruling China.
 Tremble and chestnut have the same sound inChinese.
 In old times men had been sacrificed at theearth-altars, and Tsai Wo's answer might seem to approve thepractice.
 Kuan Chung (+ 645 b.c.), a famous man in his day, waschief minister to the Duke of Ch'i, whom he raised to such wealth andpower that he became the leading prince of the empire. His chief meritlay in taming the barbarous frontier tribes. The rest of his work wasbuilt upon sand and died with him.
 Of music.
2. The Master said, Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannotbear fortune long. Loving men find peace in love, the wise find profitin it.
3. The Master said, Love alone can love others, or hate others.
4. The Master said, A will set on love is free from evil.
5. The Master said, Wealth and honours are what men desire; but do notgo from the Way, to keep them. Lowliness and want are hated by men;but do not go from the Way, to escape them.
Shorn of love, is a gentleman worthy of the name? Not for one momentmay a gentleman sin against love; he must not do so in flurry andhaste, nor do so in utter overthrow.
6. The Master said, I have seen no one that loves love and hatesuncharity. He that loves love will set nothing higher. The hater ofuncharity is so given to love that no uncharity can enter into hislife. If a man were to give his strength to love for one day, I haveseen no one whose strength would fail him. There may be such men, butI have not seen one.
7. The Master said, A man and his faults are of a piece. By watchinghis faults we learn whether love be his.
8. The Master said, To learn the Way at daybreak and die at eve wereenough.
9. The Master said, A knight in quest of the Way, who is ashamedof bad clothes and bad food, it is idle talking to.
10. The Master said, A gentleman has no likes or dislikes belowheaven. He follows right.
11. The Master said, The gentleman cherishes mind, the small mancherishes dirt. Gentlemen trust in the law, the small man trusts infavour.
12. The Master said, The chase of gain is rich in hate.
13. The Master said, What is it to sway a kingdom by courteousyielding? If we cannot sway a kingdom by courteous yielding, what isour courtesy worth?
14. The Master said, Care not for want of place; care for thyreadiness to fill one. Care not for being unknown, but seek to beworthy of note.
15. The Master said, One line, Shen, runs through my Way.
Yes, said Tseng-tzu.
After the Master had left, the disciples asked what was meant.
Tseng-tzu said, The Master's Way is no more than faithfulness andfellow-feeling.
16. The Master said, The gentleman is learned in right; the small manis learned in gain.
17. The Master said, At sight of worth, think to grow like it; atsight of baseness, search thyself within.
18. The Master said, A father or a mother may be gently chidden. Ifthou seest they have no will to follow thee, be the more lowly, but donot give way; nor murmur at the trouble they give thee.
19. The Master said, Whilst thy father and mother are living, do notwander afar. If thou must travel, hold a set course.
20. The Master said, He that changes nothing in his father's ways forthree years may be called pious.
21. The Master said, A father and mother's years must be borne inmind; with gladness on the one hand and fear on the other.
22. The Master said, The men of old were loth to speak, for not tolive up to their words would have shamed them.
23. The Master said, We shall seldom get lost if we hold to mainlines.
24. The Master said, A gentleman wishes to be slow to speak and quickto do.
25. The Master said, A great soul is never friendless: he has alwaysneighbours.
26. Tzu-yu said, Nagging at kings brings disgrace, nagging at friendsestrangement.
 Shih: a gentleman entitled to bear arms, not a knightin armour.
 The disciple Tseng-tzu.
He gave him his daughter to wed.
Of Nan Jung the Master said, When the land keeps the Way he will notbe neglected; and if the land loses the Way he will escape punishmentand death.
He gave him his brother's daughter to wed.
2. Of Tzu-chien the Master said, What a gentleman he is! But ifthere were no gentlemen in Lu, where could he have picked it up?
3. Tzu-kung asked, And what of me?
Thou art a vessel, said the Master.
What kind of vessel?
A rich temple vessel.
4. One said, Yung has love, but he is not glib.
The Master said, What is the good of being glib? Fighting men withtongue-craft mostly makes men hate you. Whether love be his I do notknow, but what is the good of being glib?
5. The Master moved Ch'i-tiao K'ai to take office.
He answered, For this I want confidence.
The Master was pleased.
6. The Master said, Forsaken is the Way! I must take ship and stemthe seas; and Yu shall go with me.
When Tzu-lu heard this he was glad.
The Master said, Yu loves daring more than I do, but he is at a losshow to take things.
7. Meng Wu asked whether Tzu-lu had love.
I do not know, said the Master.
He asked again.
A land of a thousand chariots might give Yu charge of its levies; butwhether love be his I do not know.
And how about Ch'iu?
A town of a thousand households, a clan of an hundred chariots mightmake Ch'iu governor; but whether love be his I do not know.
And how about Ch'ih?
Standing in the court, girt with his sash, Ch'ih might entertain theguests; but whether love be his I do not know.
8. The Master said to Tzu-kung, Which is the better man, thou orHui?
He answered, How dare I look as high as Hui? When Hui hears one thing,he understands ten; when I hear one thing I understand two.
The Master said, Thou art not his like. Neither art thou his like, noram I.
9. Tsai Yü slept in the daytime.
The Master said, Rotten wood cannot be carved, nor are dung wallsplastered. Why chide with Yü?
The Master said, When I first met men I listened to their words andtook their deeds on trust. When I meet them now, I listen to theirwords and watch their deeds. I righted this on Yü.
10. The Master said, I have met no firm man.
One answered, Shen Ch'ang.
The Master said, Ch'ang is passionate; how can he be firm?
11. Tzu-kung said, What I do not wish done to me, I likewise wish notto do to others.
The Master said, That is still beyond thee, Tz'u.
12. Tzu-kung said, To hear the Master on his art and precepts isgranted us; but to hear him on man's nature and the Way of Heaven isnot.
13. Until Tzu-lu could do what he had heard, his only fear was to hearmore.
14. Tzu-kung asked, Why was K'ung-wen called cultured?
The Master said, He was quick and loved learning; he was not ashamedto ask those beneath him: that is why he was called cultured.
15. The Master said, Of the ways of a gentleman Tzu-ch'an had four.His life was modest; he honoured those that he served. He was kind infeeding the people, and he was just in his calls upon them.
16. The Master said, Yen P'ing was a good friend. The longer he knewyou, the more attentive he grew.
17. The Master said, Tsang Wen lodged his tortoise with hills on thepillars and reeds on the uprights: was this his wisdom?
18. Tzu-chang said, The chief minister, Tzu-wen, was thrice mademinister without showing gladness, thrice he left office with unmovedlooks. He always told the new ministers how the old ones had governed:how was that?
He was faithful, said the Master.
But was it love?
I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love?
When Ts'ui murdered the lord of Ch'i, Ch'en Wen threw up ten teams ofhorses and left the land. On coming to another kingdom he said, 'Likemy lord Ts'ui,' and left it. On coming to a second kingdom he saidagain, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it: how was that?
He was clean, said the Master.
But was it love?
I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love?
19. Chi Wen thought thrice before acting.
On hearing this the Master said, Twice is enough.
20. The Master said, Whilst the land kept the Way Ning Wu showedwisdom; when his land lost the Way he grew simple. His wisdom we maycome up to; such simplicity is beyond us.
21. When he was in Ch'en the Master said, Home, I must go home!Zealous, or rash, or finished scholars, my young sons at home do notknow what pruning they still need!
22. The Master said, Because Po-yi and Shu-ch'i never remembered oldwickedness they made few enemies.
23. The Master said, Who can call Wei-sheng Kao straight? A man beggedhim for vinegar: he begged it of a neighbour, and gave it.
24. The Master said, Smooth words, fawning looks, and overdonehumility, Tso Ch'iu-ming thought shameful, and so do I. He thought itshameful to hide ill-will and ape friendship, and so do I.
25. As Yen Yüan and Chi-lu were sitting with him, the Master said,Why not each of you tell me thy wishes?
Tzu-lu said, I should like carriages and horses, and clothes of lightfur to share with my friends, and, if they spoiled them, not to getangry.
Yen Yüan said, I should like to make no boast of talent or show ormerit.
Tzu-lu said, We should like to hear your wishes, Sir.
The Master said, To give the old folk peace, to be true to friends,and to have a heart for the young.
26. The Master said, It is finished! I have met no one that can seehis own faults and arraign himself within.
27. The Master said, In a hamlet of ten houses there must be men thatare as faithful and true men as I, but they do not love learning as Ido.
 A disciple born in Lu.
 The disciple Chung-kung.
 The disciple Jan Yu.
 The disciple Kung-hsi Hua.
 The disciple Yen Yüan.
 The disciple Tsai Wo.
 Ning Wu was minister of the Duke of Wei in the middle ofthe seventh century b.c. The duke was driven from his throne anddeserted by the wise and prudent; but Ning Wu, in his simplicity,stuck to his master and finally effected his restoration.
 Po-yi and Shu-ch'i were sons of the King of Ku-chu.Their father left the throne to the younger of the two; but he wouldnot supplant the elder, nor would the elder go against his father'swishes. So they both retired into obscurity. When King Wu overthrewthe tyrant Chou (1122 b.c.), they starved to death, rather than liveunder a new dynasty. Of Po-yi Mencius tells us (Book X, chapter 1):'His eyes would not look on an evil face, his ears would not listen toan evil sound. He served none but his own lord, he ruled none but hisown people. He came in when there was order, and withdrew when tumultscame. Where lawless rule showed, or lawless people stayed, he couldnot bear to dwell. To be together with country folk he thought likesitting in court dress and court cap on dust and ashes. In Chou's timehe dwelt by the North Sea shore, waiting for all below heaven to growclean. So, hearing the ways of Po-yi, the fool grows honest, and theweakling's purpose stands.'
 might fill the seat of a prince.
And might Tzu-sang Po-tzu? asked Chung-kung.
Yes, said the Master; but he is slack.
To be stern to himself, said Chung-kung, and slack in his claims onthe people, might do; but to be slack himself and slack with othersmust surely be too slack.
The Master said, What Yung says is true.
2. Duke Ai asked which disciples loved learning.
Confucius answered, Yen Hui loved learning. He did not carry overanger; he made no mistake twice. Alas! his mission was short, he died.Now that he is gone, I hear of no one that loves learning.
3. When Tzu-hua was sent to Ch'i, the disciple Jan asked for grainfor his mother.
The Master said, Give her six pecks.
He asked for more.
The Master said, Give her sixteen.
Jan gave her eight hundred.
The Master said, On his way to Ch'i, Ch'ih was drawn by sleekhorses and clad in light furs. I have heard that gentlemen help theneedy, not that they swell riches.
When Yüan Ssu was made governor he was given nine hundred measures ofgrain, which he refused.
Not so, said the Master: why not take it and give it to thy neighboursand countryfolk?
4. The Master said of Chung-kung, If the calf of a brindled cow be redand horned, though men be shy to offer him, will the hills and streamsreject him?
5. The Master said, For three months together Hui's heart neversinned against love. The others may hold out for a day, or a month,but no more.
6. Chi K'ang asked whether Chung-yu was fit to govern.
The Master said, Yu is firm; what would governing be to him?
And is Tz'u fit to govern?
Tz'u is thorough; what would governing be to him?
And is Ch'iu fit to govern?
Ch'in is clever; what would governing be to him?
7. The Chi sent to make Min Tzu-ch'ien governor of Pi.
Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Make some good excuse for me. If he sends again Imust be across the Wen.
8. When Po-niu was ill the Master asked after him. Grasping hishand through the window, he said, He is going. It is the Bidding; butwhy this man of such an illness? Why this man of such an illness?
9. The Master said. What a man was Hui! A bowl of rice, a gourd ofwater, in a low alley; man cannot bear such misery! Yet Hui never fellfrom mirth. What a man he was!
10. Jan Ch'iu said, It is not that I take no pleasure in theMaster's Way: I want strength.
The Master said, He that wants strength faints midway; but thoudrawest a line.
11. The Master said to Tzu-hsia, Study to be a gentleman, not as thesmall man studies.
12. When Tzu-yu was governor of Wu-ch'eng, the Master said, Hast thougotten any men?
He answered, I have Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming. He will not take a short cutwhen walking, and he has never come to my house except on business.
13. The Master said, Meng Chih-fan never brags. He was covering therear in a rout; but on coming to the gate he whipped his horse andcried, Not courage kept me behind; my horse won't go!
14. The Master said, Unless we are glib as the reader T'o and fair asChao of Sung, escape is hard in the times that be!
15. The Master said, Who can go out except by the door? Why is it noone keeps to the Way?
16. The Master said, Matter outweighing art begets roughness; artoutweighing matter begets pedantry. Matter and art well blent make agentleman.
17. The Master said, Man is born straight. If he grows crooked andyet lives, he is lucky to escape.
18. The Master said, He that knows is below him that loves, and hethat loves below him that delights therein.
19. The Master said, To men above the common we can talk of higherthings; to men below the common we must not talk of higher things.
20. Fan Ch'ih asked, What is wisdom?
The Master said, To foster right among the people; to honour ghostsand spirits, and yet keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom.
He asked, What is love?
The Master said, To rank the effort above the prize may be calledlove.
21. The Master said, Wisdom delights in water; love delights in hills.Wisdom is stirring; love is quiet. Wisdom is merry; love grows old.
22. The Master said, By one revolution Ch'i might grow to be Lu; byone revolution Lu might reach the Way.
23. The Master said, A drinking horn that is no horn! What a horn!What a drinking horn!
24. Tsai Wo said, If a man of love were told that a man is in awell, would he go in after him?
The Master said, Why should he? A gentleman might be got to the well,but not trapped into it, He may be cheated, but not fooled.
25. The Master said, By breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy,a gentleman is kept, too, from false paths.
26. The Master saw Nan-tzu. Tzu-lu was displeased.
The Master took an oath, saying, If I have done wrong, may Heavenforsake me, may Heaven forsake me!
27. The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, theCommon. They have long been rare among the people.
28. Tzu-kung said, To treat the people with bounty and help the many,how were that? Could it be called love?
The Master said, What has this to do with love? Must it not beholiness? Yao and Shun still yearned for this. Seeking a footholdfor self, love finds a foothold for others; seeking light for itself,it enlightens others too. To learn from the near at hand may be calledthe clue to love.
 The disciple Chung-kung.
 The disciple Yen Yüan.
 The disciple Kung-hsi Hua, or Kung-hsi Ch'ih.
 Kung-hei Ch'ih.
 Yen Yüan.
 The head of the Chi clan after Chi Huan.
 The disciple Tzu-lu.
 The disciple Tzu-kung.
 The disciple Jan Yu.
 A disciple.
 Yen Yüan.
 Jan Yu.
 A disciple.
 A disciple.
 The dissolute wife of Duke Ling of Wei.
 Two emperors of the golden age.
2. The Master said, To think things over in silence, to learn and bealways hungry, to teach and never weary; is any of these mine?
3. The Master said, Not making the most of my mind, want ofthoroughness in learning, failure to do the right when told it, lackof strength to overcome faults; these are my sorrows.
4. In his free moments the Master was easy and cheerful.
5. The Master said, How deep is my decay! It is long since I saw theDuke of Chou in a dream.
6. The Master said, Keep thy will on the Way, lean on mind, rest inlove, move in art.
7. The Master said, From the man that paid in dried meat upwards, Ihave withheld teaching from no one.
8. The Master said, Only to those fumbling do I open, only for thosestammering do I find the word.
If I lift one corner and the other three are left unturned, I say nomore.
9. When eating beside a mourner the Master never ate his fill. On dayswhen he had been wailing, he did not sing.
10. The Master said to Yen Yüan, To go forward when in office and liequiet when not; only I and thou can do that.
Tzu-lu said, If ye had to lead three armies, Sir, whom would ye havewith you?
No man, said the Master, that would face a tiger bare-fisted, orplunge into a river and die without a qualm; but one, indeed, who,fearing what may come, lays his plans well and carries them through.
11. The Master said, If shouldering a whip were a sure road to richesI should turn carter; but since there is no sure road, I tread thepath I love.
12. The Master gave heed to abstinence, war and sickness.
13. When he was in Ch'i, for three months after hearing the Shaoplayed, the Master knew not the taste of flesh.
I did not suppose, he said, that music could reach such heights.
14. Jan Yu said, Is the Master for the lord of Wei?
I shall ask him, said Tzu-kung.
He went in, and said, What kind of men were Po-yi and Shu-ch'i?
Worthy men of yore, said the Master.
Did they rue the past?
They sought love and found it; what had they to rue?
Tzu-kung went out, and said, The Master is not for him.
15. The Master said, Eating coarse rice and drinking water, with bentarm for pillow, we may be merry; but ill-gotten wealth and honours areto me a wandering cloud.
16. The Master said, Given a few more years, making fifty for learningthe Yi, I might be freed from gross faults.
17. The Master liked to talk of poetry, history, and the upkeep ofcourtesy. Of all these he liked to talk.
18. The Duke of She asked Tzu-lu about Confucius.
Tzu-lu did not answer.
The Master said, Why didst thou not say, He is a man that forgets toeat in his eagerness, whose sorrows are forgotten in gladness, whoknows not that age draws near?
19. The Master said, I was not born to wisdom: I loved the past, andsought it earnestly there.
20. The Master never talked of goblins, strength, disorder, orspirits.
21. The Master said, Walking three together I am sure of teachers. Ipick out the good and follow it; I see the bad and shun it.
22. The Master said, Heaven begat the mind in me; what can HuanT'ui do to me?
23. The Master said, My two-three boys, do ye think I hide things? Ihide nothing from you. I am a man that keeps none of his doings fromhis two-three boys.
24. The Master taught four things: art, conduct, faithfulness andtruth.
25. The Master said, A holy man I shall not live to see; enough couldI find a gentleman! A good man I shall not live to see; enough could Ifind a steadfast one! But when nothing poses as something, cloud assubstance and want as riches, it is hard indeed to be steadfast!
26. The Master angled, but he did not fish with a net; he shot, butnot at birds sitting.
27. The Master said, There may be men that do things without knowingwhy. I do not. To hear much, pick out the good and follow it; to seemuch and think it over; this comes next to wisdom.
28. To talk to the Hu village was hard. When a lad was seen by theMaster, the disciples doubted.
The Master said, I allow his coming, not what he does later. Why be soharsh? If a man cleans himself to come in, I admit his cleanness, butdo not warrant his past.
29. The Master said, Is love so far a thing? I long for love, and lo!love is come.
30. A judge of Ch'en asked whether Duke Chao knew good form.
Confucius answered, He knew good form.
After Confucius had left, the judge beckoned Wu-ma Ch'i to him,and said, I had heard that gentlemen are of no party, but do they,too, take sides? This lord married a Wu, whose name was the same ashis, and called her Miss Tzu of Wu: if he knew good form, who does notknow good form?
When Wu-ma Ch'i told the Master this he said, How lucky I am! If I gowrong, men are sure to know it!
31. When anyone sang to the Master, and sang well, he made him sing itagain and joined in.
32. The Master said, I have no more reading than others; to live as agentleman is not yet mine.
33. The Master said, How dare I lay claim to holiness or love? A manof endless craving, who never tires of teaching, I might be called,but that is all.
That is just what we disciples cannot learn, said Kung-hsi Hua.
34. When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu asked leave to pray.
Is it done? said the Master.
It is, answered Tzu-lu. The Memorials say, Pray to the spirits aboveand to the Earth below.
The Master said, Long-lasting has my prayer been.
35. The Master said, Waste makes men unruly, thrift makes them mean;but they are better mean than unruly.
36. The Master said, A gentleman is calm and spacious; the small manis always fretting.
37. The Master's manner was warm yet dignified. He was stern, but notfierce; humble, yet easy.
 We should be glad to know more of old P'eng, but nothingis known of him.
 Died 1105 b.c. He was the younger brother of King Wu,the founder of the Chou dynasty, as great in peace as the King in war.He was so bent on carrying out the old principles of government that'if anything did not tally with them, he looked up and thought, tillday passed into night, and if by luck he found the answer he sat andwaited for the dawn' (Mencius, Book VIII, chapter 20).
 The grandson of Duke Ling, the husband of Nan-tzu. Hisfather had been driven from the country for plotting to kill Nan-tzu.When Duke Ling died, he was succeeded by his grandson, who opposed byforce his father's attempts to seize the throne.
 An abstruse, ancient classic, usually called the Book ofChanges.
 In 495 b.c., during Confucius's wanderings, Huan T'uisent a band of men to kill him; but why he did so is not known.
 Duke Chao of Lu (+ 510 b.c.) was the duke that firstemployed Confucius. It is against Chinese custom for a man to marry agirl whose surname is the same as his.
 A disciple of Confucius.
 may be said to have carried nobilityfurthest. Thrice he refused all below heaven. Men were at a loss howto praise him.
2. The Master said, Without good form attentions grow into fussiness,heed becomes fearfulness, daring becomes unruliness, frankness becomesrudeness. When gentlemen are true to kinsfolk, love will thrive amongthe people; if they do not forsake old friends, the people will notsteal.
3. When Tseng-tzu lay sick he called his disciples and said, Uncovermy feet, uncover my arms. The poem says,
My little children, I have known how to keep myself unhurt until nowand hereafter.
As if a deep gulfWere yawning below,As crossing thin ice,Take heed how ye go.
4. When Tseng-tzu was sick Meng Ching came to ask after him.
Tseng-tzu said, When a bird is dying his notes are sad; when man isdying his words are good. Three branches of the Way are dear to agentleman: To banish from his bearing violence and disdain; to sorthis face to the truth, and to banish from his speech what is low orunseemly. The ritual of chalice and platter has servitors to seeto it.
5. Tseng-tzu said, When we can, to ask those that cannot; when we aremore, to ask those that are less; having, to seem wanting; real, toseem shadow; when gainsaid, never answering back; I had a friendonce that could do thus.
6. Tseng-tzu said, A man to whom an orphan, a few feet high, or thefate of an hundred towns, may be entrusted, and whom no crisis cancorrupt, is he not a gentleman, a gentleman indeed?
7. Tseng-tzu said, The knight had need be strong and bold; for hisburden is heavy, the way is far. His burden is love, is it not a heavyone? No halt before death, is that not far?
8. The Master said, Poetry rouses us, we stand upon courtesy, music isour crown.
9. The Master said, The people may be made to follow, we cannot makethem understand.
10. The Master said, Love of daring and hatred of poverty lead tocrime; a man without love, if he is sorely harassed, turns to crime.
11. The Master said, All the comely gifts of the Duke of Chou,coupled with pride and meanness, would not be worth a glance.
12. The Master said, A man to whom three years of learning have borneno fruit would be hard to find.
13. The Master said, A man of simple faith, who loves learning, whoguards and betters his way unto death, will not enter a totteringkingdom, nor stay in a lawless land. When all below heaven follows theWay, he is seen; when it loses the Way, he is unseen. While his landkeeps the Way, he is ashamed to be poor and lowly; but when his landhas lost the Way, wealth and honours shame him.
14. The Master said, When out of place, discuss not policy.
15. The Master said, In the first days of the music-master Chih howthe hubbub of the Kuan-chü rose sea beyond sea! How it filled theear!
16. The Master said, Of men that are zealous, but not straight; dull,but not simple; helpless, but not truthful, I will know nothing.
17. The Master said, Learn as though the time were short, like onethat fears to lose.
18. The Master said, How wonderful were Shun and Yü! To have allbelow heaven was nothing to them!
19. The Master said, How great a lord was Yao! Wonderful! Heavenalone is great; Yao alone was patterned on it. Vast, boundless! Men'swords failed them. The wonder of the work done by him! The flame ofhis art and precepts!
20. Shun had five ministers, and there was order below heaven.
King Wu said, I have ten uncommon ministers.
Confucius said, 'The dearth of talent,' is not that the truth? WhenYü followed T'ang the times were rich in talent; yet therewere but nine men in all, and one woman. In greatness of soul we maysay that Chou was highest: he had two-thirds of all below heavenand bent it to the service of Yin.
21. The Master said, I see no flaw in Yü. He ate and drank little, yethe was lavish in piety to the ghosts and spirits. His clothes werebad, but in his cap and gown he was fair indeed. His palace buildingswere poor, yet he gave his whole strength to dykes and ditches. Nokind of flaw can I see in Yü.
 T'ai-po was the eldest son of the King of Chou. Thefather wished his third son to succeed him, so that the throne mightpass later to his grandson, afterwards known as King Wen. To enablethis plan to be carried out T'ai-po and his second brother went intoexile.
 The Chinese say: 'The body is born whole by the mother;it should be returned whole by the son.'
 Chief of the Meng clan, minister of Lu.
 For sacrifice.
 Probably Yen Yüan.
 The last part of the music, when all the instrumentswere played together.
 King Wen, Duke of Chou.
2. A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, The great Confucius, withhis vast learning, has made no name in anything.
When the Master heard this, he said to his disciples, What shall Itake up? Shall I take up driving, or shall I take up shooting? I shalltake up driving.
3. The Master said, A linen cap is good form; now silk is worn. It ischeap, so I follow the many. To bow below is good form; now it is doneabove. This is arrogance, so, breaking with the many, I still bowbelow.
4. From four things the Master was quite free: by-ends and 'must' and'shall' and 'I.'
5. When he was afraid in K'uang, the Master said, Since the deathof King Wen, is not the seat of culture here? If Heaven had meant todestroy our culture, a later mortal would have had no part in it.Until Heaven condemns our culture, what can the men of K'uang do tome?
6. A high minister said to Tzu-kung, The Master must be a holy man, hecan do so many things!
Tzu-kung said, Heaven has, indeed, given him so much that he is almostholy, and he can do many things, too.
When the Master heard this, he said, Does the minister know me?Because I was poor when young, I can do many paltry things. But doesdoing many things make a gentleman? No, not doing many does.
Lao said, The Master would say, As I had no post I learned the crafts.
7. The Master said, Have I in truth wisdom? I have no wisdom. But whena common fellow emptily asks me anything, I tap it on this side andthat, and sift it to the bottom.
8. The Master said, The phœnix comes not, the River gives forth nosign: all is over with me!
9. When the Master saw folk clad in mourning, or in cap and gown, or ablind man, he always rose—even for the young,—or, if he was passingthem, he quickened his step.
10. Yen Yüan heaved a sigh, and said, As I look up it grows higher,deeper as I dig! I catch sight of it ahead, and on a sudden it isbehind me! The Master leads men on, deftly bit by bit. He widens mewith culture, he binds me with courtesy. If I wished to stop I couldnot until my strength were spent. What seems the mark stands near; butthough I long to reach it, I find no way.
11. When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu made the disciples act asministers.
During a better spell the Master said, Yu has long been feigning.This show of ministers, when I have no ministers, whom will it takein? Will Heaven be taken in? And is it not better to die in the armsof my two-three boys than to die in the arms of ministers? And, if Imiss a big burial, shall I die by the roadside?
12. Tzu-kung said, If I had here a fair piece of jade, should I hideit away in a case, or seek a good price and sell it?
Sell it, sell it! said the Master. I tarry for my price.
13. The Master wished to dwell among the nine tribes.
One said, They are low; how could ye?
The Master said, Wherever a gentleman lives, will there be anythinglow?
14. The Master said. After I came back from Wei to Lu the music wasset straight and each song found its place.
15. The Master said, To serve dukes and ministers abroad and fatherand brothers at home; in matters of mourning not to dare to be slack;and to be no thrall to wine: to which of these have I won?
16. As he stood by a stream, the Master said, Hasting away like this,day and night, without stop!
17. The Master said, I have seen no one that loves mind as he loveslooks.
18. The Master said, In making a mound, if I stop when one more basketwould finish it, I stop. When flattening ground, if, afteroverturning one basket, I go on, I go ahead.
19. The Master said, Never listless when spoken to, such was Hui.
20. Speaking of Yen Yüan, the Master said, The pity of it! I saw himgo on, but I never saw him stop!
21. The Master said, Some sprouts do not blossom, some blossoms bearno fruit!
22. The Master said, Awe is due to youth. May not to-morrow be brightas to-day? To men of forty or fifty, who are still unknown, no awe isdue.
23. The Master said, Who would not give ear to a downright word? Butto mend is better. Who would not be pleased by a guiding word? But tothink it out is better. With such as are pleased but do not think out,or who listen but do not mend, I can do nothing.
24. The Master said, Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friendsunlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults.
25. The Master said, Three armies may be robbed of their leader, nowretch can be robbed of his will.
26. The Master said, Yu is the man to stand, clad in a worn-outquilted gown, unashamed, amid robes of fox and badger!
But when Tzu-lu was everlastingly humming these words, the Mastersaid, This is the way towards it, but how much short of goodnessitself!
Without hatred or greed,What but good does he do?
27. The Master said, Erst the cold days show how fir and cypress arelast to fade.
28. The Master said, Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; thebold have no fears.
29. The Master said, With some we can learn together, but we cannot gotheir way; we can go the same way with others, though our standpointis not the same; and with some, though our standpoint is the same ourweights and scales are not.
The Master said, Her thoughts were not with him, or how could he befar away?
The blossoms of the plum treeAre dancing in play;My thoughts are with thee,In thy home far away.
 During the Master's wanderings. K'uang is said to havebeen a small state near Lu which had been oppressed by Yang Huo.Confucius resembled him, and the men of K'uang set upon him, mistakinghim for their enemy. The commentators say that the Master was notafraid, only 'roused to a sense of danger.' I cannot find that thetext says so.
 In the east of Shantung.
 Yen Yüan.
In the ancestral temple and at court his speech was full, butcautious.
2. At court he talked frankly to men of low rank, winningly to men ofhigh rank. When the king was there, he looked intent and solemn.
3. When the king bade him receive guests, his face seemed to changeand his legs to bend. He bowed left and right to those beside him,straightened his robes in front and behind, and swept forward, witharms spread like wings. When the guest had left, he brought back word,saying, The guest is no longer looking.
4. As he went in at the palace gate he stooped, as though it were toolow for him. He did not stand in the middle of the gate, or step onthe threshold.
When he passed the throne, his face seemed to change and his legs tobend: he spake with bated breath. As he went up the hall to audience,he lifted his robes, bowed his back, and masked his breathing till itseemed to stop. As he came down, he relaxed his face below the firststep and looked pleased. From the foot of the steps he swept forwardwith arms spread like wings; and when he was back in his seat, helooked intent as before.
5. When he carried the sceptre, his back bent, as under too heavy aburden; he lifted it no higher than in bowing and no lower than inmaking a gift. His face changed, as it will with fear, and he draggedhis feet, as though they were fettered.
When he offered his present his manner was formal; but at the privateaudience he was cheerful.
6. The gentleman was never decked in violet or mauve; even at home hewould not wear red or purple.
In hot weather he wore an unlined linen gown, but always over otherclothes.
With lamb-skin he wore black, with fawn, white, and with fox-skin,yellow. At home he wore a long fur gown, with the right sleeve short.
His nightgown was always half as long again as his body.
In the house he wore thick fur, of fox or badger.
When he was not in mourning there was nothing missing from his girdle.
Except for sacrificial dress, he was sparing of stuff.
He did not wear lamb's fur, or a black cap, on a mourning visit.
At the new moon he always put on court dress and went to court.
7. On his days of abstinence he always wore linen clothes of a palecolour; and he changed his food and moved from his wonted seat.
8. He did not dislike well-cleaned rice or hash chopped small. He didnot eat sour or mouldy rice, bad fish, or tainted flesh. He did noteat anything that had a bad colour or that smelt bad, or food thatwas badly cooked or out of season. Food that was badly cut or servedwith the wrong sauce he did not eat. However much flesh there mightbe, it could not conquer his taste for rice. To wine alone he set nolimit, but he did not drink enough to muddle him. He did not drinkbought wine, or eat ready-dried market meat. He never went withoutginger at a meal. He did not eat much.
After a sacrifice at the palace he did not keep the flesh over-night.He never kept sacrificial flesh more than three days. If it had beenkept longer it was not eaten.
He did not talk at meals, nor speak when he was in bed.
Even at a meal of coarse rice, or herb broth, or gourds, he made hisoffering with all reverence.
9. If his mat was not straight, he would not sit down.
10. When the villagers were drinking wine, as those that walked with astaff left, he left too.
At the village exorcisms he put on court dress and stood on the eaststeps.
11. When sending a man with enquiries to another land, he bowed twiceto him and saw him out.
When K'ang gave him some drugs, he bowed, accepted them, and said, Ihave never taken them; I dare not taste them.
12. On coming back from court after his stables had been burnt, theMaster said, Is anyone hurt? He did not ask about the horses.
13. When the king sent him cooked meat, he put his mat straight, andtasted it first; when he sent him raw flesh, he had it cooked, andoffered it to the spirits; when he sent him a live beast, he kept italive.
When he ate in attendance on the king, the king made the offering, hetasted things first.
When he was sick and the king came to see him, he lay with his head tothe east, with his court dress over him and his girdle across it.
When he was called by the king's bidding, he walked, without waitingfor his carriage.
14. On going into the Great Temple he asked about everything.
15. When a friend died, who had no home to go to, he said, It is forme to bury him.
When friends sent him anything, even a carriage and horses, he neverbowed, unless the gift was sacrificial flesh.
16. He did not sleep like a corpse. At home he unbent.
Even if he knew him well, his face changed when he saw a mourner. Evenwhen he was in undress, if he saw anyone in full dress, or a blindman, he looked grave.
To men in deep mourning and to the census-bearers he bowed over thecross-bar.
Before choice meats he rose with changed look. At sharp thunder, or afierce wind, his look changed.
17. When mounting his carriage he stood straight and grasped the cord.When he was in it, he did not look round, or speak fast, or point.
18. Seeing a man's face, she rose, flew round and settled. The Mastersaid, Hen pheasant on the ridge, it is the season, it is the season.
Tzu-lu went towards her: she sniffed thrice and rose.
 This passage cannot belong here. It is corrupt andunintelligible.
2. The Master said, Not one of my followers in Ch'en or Ts'ai comesany more to my door! Yen Yüan, Min Tzu-ch'ien, Jan Po-niu andChung-kung were men of noble life; Tsai Wo and Tzu-kung were thetalkers; Jan Yu and Chi-lu were statesmen; Tzu-yu and Tzu-hsia, men ofarts and learning.
3. The Master said, I get no help from Hui. No word I say butdelights him!
4. The Master said, How good a son is Min Tzu-ch'ien! No one findsfault with anything that his father, or his mother, or his brethrensay of him.
5. Nan Jung would thrice repeat The Sceptre White. Confuciusgave him his brother's daughter for wife.
6. Chi K'ang asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered,There was Yen Hui loved learning. Alas! his mission was short, hedied. Now there is no one.
7. When Yen Yüan died, Yen Lu asked for the Master's carriage tofurnish an outer coffin.
The Master said, Brains or no brains, each of us speaks of his son.When Li died he had an inner but not an outer coffin: I would notgo on foot to furnish an outer coffin. As I follow in the wake of theministers I cannot go on foot.
8. When Yen Yüan died the Master said, Woe is me! Heaven has undoneme! Heaven has undone me!
9. When Yen Yüan died the Master gave way to grief.
His followers said, Sir, ye are giving way.
The Master said, Am I giving way? If I did not give way for this man,for whom should I give way to grief?
10. When Yen Yüan died the disciples wished to bury him in pomp.
The Master said, This must not be.
The disciples buried him in pomp.
The Master said, Hui treated me as his father. I have failed to treathim as a son. No, not I; but ye, my two-three boys.
11. Chi-lu asked what is due to the ghosts of the dead?
The Master said, When we cannot do our duty to the living, how can wedo it to the dead?
He dared to ask about death.
We know not life, said the Master, how can we know death?
12. Seeing the disciple Min standing at his side with winning looks,Tzu-lu with warlike front, Jan Yu and Tzu-kung frank and free, theMaster's heart was glad.
A man like Yu, he said, dies before his day.
13. The men of Lu were building the Long Treasury.
Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Would not the old one do? Why must it be rebuilt?
The Master said, That man does not talk, but when he speaks he hitsthe mark.
14. The Master said, What has the lute of Yu to do, twanging at mydoor?
But when the disciples looked down on Tzu-lu, the Master said, Yu hascome up into hall, but he has not yet entered the inner rooms.
15. Tzu-kung asked, Which is the better, Shih or Shang?
The Master said, Shih goes too far, Shang not far enough.
Then is Shih the better? said Tzu-kung.
Too far, said the Master, is no nearer than not far enough.
16. The Chi was richer than the Duke of Chou; yet Ch'iu became histax-gatherer and made him still richer.
He is no disciple of mine, said the Master. My little children, ye maybeat your drums and make war on him.
17. Ch'ai is simple, Shen is dull, Shih is smooth,Yu is coarse.
18. The Master said, Hui is almost faultless, and he is oftenempty. Tz'u will not bow to the Bidding, and he heaps up riches;but his views are often sound.
19. Tzu-chang asked, What is the way of a good man?
The Master said, He does not tread the beaten track; and yet he doesnot enter the inner rooms.
20. The Master said, Commend a man for plain speaking: he may prove agentleman, or else but seeming honest.
21. Tzu-lu said, Shall I do all I am taught?
The Master said, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live, how canstthou do all thou art taught?
Jan Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught?
The Master said, Do all thou art taught.
Kung-hsi Hua said, Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught? and yesaid, Sir, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live. Ch'iuasked, Shall I do all I am taught? and ye said, Sir, Do all thou arttaught. I am in doubt, and dare to ask you, Sir.
The Master said, Ch'iu is bashful, so I egged him on; Yu is twice aman, so I held him back.
22. When the Master was in fear in K'uang, Yen Yüan fell behind.
The Master said, I held thee for dead.
He answered, Whilst my Master lives how should I dare to die?
23. Chi Tzu-jan asked whether Chung Yu or Jan Ch'iu couldbe called a great minister.
The Master said, I thought ye would ask me a riddle, Sir, and ye askabout Yu and Ch'iu. He that holds to the Way in serving hislord and leaves when he cannot do so, we call a great minister. Now Yuand Ch'iu I should call tools.
Who are just followers then?
Nor would they follow, said the Master, if told to kill their lord orfather.
24. Tzu-lu made Tzu-kao governor of Pi.
The Master said, Thou art undoing a man's son.
Tzu-lu said, What with the people and the spirits of earth and corn,must a man read books to become learned?
The Master said, This is why I hate a glib tongue.
25. The Master said to Tzu-lu, Tseng Hsi, Jan Yu and Kung-hsi Huaas they sat beside him, I may be a day older than you, but forgetthat. Ye are wont to say, I am unknown. Well, if ye were known, whatwould ye do?
Tzu-lu answered lightly. Give me a land of a thousand chariots,crushed between great neighbours, overrun by soldiers and searched byfamine, and within three years I could put courage into it and highpurpose.
The Master smiled.
What wouldst thou do, Ch'iu? he said.
He answered, Give me a land of sixty or seventy, or fifty or sixtysquare miles, and within three years I could give the people plenty.As for courtesy and music, they would wait the coming of a gentleman.
And what wouldst thou do, Ch'ih?
He answered, I do not speak of what I can do, but of what I shouldlike to learn. At services in the Ancestral Temple, or at the GrandAudience, I should like to fill a small part.
And what wouldst thou do, Tien?
Tien stopped playing, pushed his still sounding lute aside, rose andanswered, My choice would be unlike those of the other three.
What harm in that? said the Master. Each but spake his mind.
In the last days of spring, all clad for the springtime, with five orsix young men and six or seven lads, I would bathe in the Yi, befanned by the wind in the Rain God's glade, and go back home singing.
The Master said with a sigh, I side with Tien.
Tseng Hsi stayed after the other three had left, and said, What did yethink, Sir, of what the three disciples said?
Each but spake his mind, said the Master.
Why did ye smile at Yu, Sir?
Lands are swayed by courtesy, but what he said was not modest. Thatwas why I smiled. Yet did not Ch'iu speak of a state? Where wouldsixty or seventy, or fifty or sixty, square miles be found that arenot a state? And did not Ch'ih too speak of a state? Who but greatvassals are there in the Ancestral Temple, or at the Grand Audience?But if Ch'ih were to take a small part, who could fill a big one?
 Yen Yüan.
 The verse runs—
A flaw can be groundFrom a sceptre white;A slip of the tongueNo man can right.
 Yen Yüan.
 The father of Yen Yüan.
 The Master's son.
 Tzu-lu. This prophecy came true. Tzu-lu and Tzu-kao wereofficers of Wei when troubles arose. Tzu-lu hastened to the help ofhis master. He met Tzu-kao withdrawing from the danger, and wasadvised to do the same. But Tzu-lu would not desert the man whose payhe drew. He plunged into the fight and was killed.
 The disciple Tzu-chang.
 The disciple Tzu-hsia.
 The disciple Jan Yu.
 The disciple Kao Ch'ai
 The disciple Tseng-tzu.
 The disciple Tzu-chang.
 The disciple Tzu-lu.
 The disciple Yen Yüan.
 The disciple Tzu-kung.
 Jan Yu.
 The younger brother of Chi Huan, the head of the Chiclan.
 Tzu-lu. He and Jan Yu had taken office under the Chi.
 Jan Yu.
 A disciple: the father of Tseng-tzu.
 Jan Yu.
 Kung-hsi Hua.
 Tseng Hsi.
The Master said, Love is to conquer self and turn to courtesy. If wecould conquer self and turn to courtesy for one day, all below heavenwould turn to love. Does love flow from within, or does it flow fromothers?
Yen Yüan said, May I ask what are its signs?
The Master said, To be always courteous of eye and courteous of ear;to be always courteous in word and courteous in deed.
Yen Yüan said, Though I am not clever, I hope to live by these words.
2. Chung-kung asked, What is love?
The Master said, Without the door to behave as though a great guestwere come; to treat the people as though we tendered the greatsacrifice; not to do unto others what we would not they should do untous; to breed no wrongs in the state and breed no wrongs in the home.
Chung-kung said, Though I am not clever, I hope to live by thesewords.
3. Ssu-ma Niu asked, What is love?
The Master said, Love is slow to speak.
To be slow to speak! Can that be called love?
The Master said, Can that which is hard to do be lightly spoken?
4. Ssu-ma Niu asked, What is a gentleman?
The Master said, A gentleman knows neither sorrow nor fear.
No sorrow and no fear! Can that be called a gentleman?
The Master said. He searches his heart: it is blameless; so why shouldhe sorrow, what should he fear?
5. Ssu-ma Niu cried sadly, All men have brothers, I alone have none!
Tzu-hsia said, I have heard that life and death are allotted, thatwealth and honours are in Heaven's hand. A gentleman is careful anddoes not trip; he is humble towards others and courteous. All withinthe four seas are brethren; how can a gentleman lament that he hasnone?
6. Tzu-chang asked, What is insight?
The Master said, Not to be moved by lap and wash of slander, or byplaints that pierce to the quick, may be called insight. Yea, whom lapand wash of slander, or plaints that pierce to the quick cannot movemay be called far-sighted.
7. Tzu-kung asked, What is kingcraft?
The Master said, Food enough, troops enough, and the trust of thepeople.
Tzu-kung said, If it had to be done, which could best be spared of thethree?
Troops, said the Master.
And if we had to, which could better be spared of the other two?
Food, said the Master. From of old all men die, but without trust apeople cannot stand.
8. Chi Tzu-ch'eng said, It is the stuff alone that makes agentleman; what can art do for him?
Alas! my lord, said Tzu-kung, how ye speak of a gentleman! No teamovertakes the tongue! The art is no less than the stuff, the stuff isno less than the art. Without the fur, a tiger or a leopard's hide isno better than the hide of a dog or a goat.
9. Duke Ai said to Yu Jo, In this year of dearth I have notenough for my wants; what should be done?
Ye might tithe the people, answered Yu Jo.
A fifth is not enough, said the Duke, how could I do with a tenth?
When all his folk have enough, answered Yu Jo, shall the lord alonenot have enough? When none of his folk have enough, shall the lordalone have enough?
10. Tzu-chang asked how to raise the mind and scatter delusions.
The Master said, Put faithfulness and truth first, and follow theright; the mind will be raised. We wish life to what we love and deathto what we hate. To wish it both life and death is a delusion.
Whether prompted by wealth, or not,Yet ye made a distinction.
11. Ching, Duke of Ch'i, asked Confucius, What is kingcraft?
Confucius answered. For the lord to be lord and the liege, liege, thefather to be father and the son, son.
True indeed! said the Duke. If the lord were no lord and the liege noliege, the father no father and the son no son, though the grain werethere, could I get anything to eat?
12. The Master said, To stint a quarrel with half a word Yu isthe man.
Tzu-lu never slept over a promise.
13. The Master said, At hearing lawsuits I am no better than others.What is needed is to stop lawsuits.
14. Tzu-chang asked, What is kingcraft?
The Master said, To be tireless of thought and faithful in doing.
15. The Master said, Breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy willkeep us, too, from false paths.
16. The Master said, A gentleman shapes the good in man, he does notshape the bad in him. The small man does the contrary.
17. Chi K'ang asked Confucius how to rule.
Confucius answered, To rule is to set straight. If ye give a straightlead, Sir, who will dare not go straight?
18. Chi K'ang being troubled by robbers asked Confucius about it.
Confucius answered, If ye did not wish it, Sir, though ye rewarded himno man would steal.
19. Chi K'ang, speaking of kingcraft to Confucius, said, To help thosethat follow the Way, should we kill the men that will not?
Confucius answered, Sir, what need has a ruler to kill? If ye wishedfor goodness, Sir, the people would be good. The gentleman's mind isthe wind, and grass are the minds of small men: as the wind blows, somust the grass bend.
20. Tzu-chang asked, What must a knight be, for him to be calledeminent?
The Master said, What dost thou mean by eminence?
Tzu-chang answered, To be famous in the state and famous in his home.
That is fame, not eminence, said the Master. The eminent man is plainand straight, and loves right. He weighs words and scans looks; hetakes pains to come down to men. And he shall be eminent in the stateand eminent in his house. The famous man wears a mask of love, but hisdeeds belie it. Self-confident and free from doubts, fame will be hisin the state and fame be his in his home.
21. Whilst walking with the Master in the Rain God's glade Fan Ch'ihsaid to him, May I ask how to raise the mind, amend evil and scattererrors?
Well asked! said the Master. Rank thy work above success, will notthe mind be raised? Fight the bad in thee, not the bad in other men,will not evil be mended? One angry morning to forget both self andkin, is that no error?
22. Fan Ch'ih asked, What is love?
The Master said, To love men.
He asked, What is wisdom?
The Master said, To know men.
Fan Ch'ih did not understand.
The Master said, Lift up the straight, put by the crooked, and crookedmen will grow straight.
Fan Ch'ih withdrew, and seeing Tzu-hsia, said to him, The Master sawme and I asked him what wisdom is. He answered, Lift up the straight,put by the crooked, and crooked men will grow straight. What did hemean?
How rich a saying! said Tzu-hsia. When Shun had all below heavenhe chose Kao-yao from the many, lifted him up, and the men withoutlove fled. When T'ang had all below heaven, he chose Yi-yinfrom the many, lifted him up, and the men without love fled.
23. Tzu-kung asked about friends.
The Master said, Talk faithfully to them, and guide them well. If thisis no good, stop. Do not bring shame upon thee.
24. Tseng-tzu said, A gentleman gathers friends by culture, and stayslove with friendship.
 A disciple.
 Minister of Wei.
 A disciple of Confucius.
 Confucius was in Ch'i in 517 b.c. The duke wasover-shadowed by his ministers and thought of setting aside his eldestson.
 On the death of Chi Huan, his brother Chi K'ang setaside Chi Huan's small son and made himself head of the clan.
 An emperor of the golden age.
 The founder of the Shang, or Yin, dynasty.
 T'ang's chief minister. Yi-yin said, Whomsoever Iserve, is he not my lord? Whomsoever I rule, are they not my people?He came in when there was order, and came in too when there weretumults. He said, When Heaven begat the people, the man that firstunderstood was sent to waken those slow to understand, and the manthat first woke was sent to waken those slow to wake. I am he thatwoke first among Heaven's people. With the help of the Way, I shallwake the people! For man or wife, of all the people below heaven, tohave missed the blessings of Yao and Shun was the same, he thought, asif he himself had pushed him into the ditch. The burden he shoulderedwas the weight of all below heaven. (Mencius, Book X, chapter 1.)
The Master said, Go before; work hard.
When asked to say more, he said, Never flag.
2. When he was steward of the Chi, Chung-kung asked how to rule.
The Master said, Let officers act first; overlook small faults, liftup brains and worth.
Chung-kung said, How shall I get to know brains and worth to lift themup?
Lift up those thou dost know, said the Master; and those thou dost notknow, will other men pass by?
3. Tzu-lu said, The lord of Wei waits for you, Sir, to govern.How shall ye begin?
Surely, said the Master, by putting names right.
Indeed, said Tzu-lu, that is far-fetched, Sir. Why put them right?
What a savage Yu is! said the Master. A gentleman is tongue-tiedwhen he does not understand. If names are not right, words do not fit.If words do not fit, affairs go wrong. If affairs go wrong, neithercourtesy nor music thrive. If courtesy and music do not thrive, lawand justice fail. And if law and justice fail them, the people canmove neither hand nor foot. So a gentleman must be ready to put namesinto speech and words into deed. A gentleman is nowise careless of hiswords.
4. Fan Ch'ih asked to be taught husbandry.
The Master said. An old husbandman knows more than I do.
He asked to be taught gardening.
The Master said. An old gardener knows more than I do.
After Fan Ch'ih had gone, the Master said, How small a man! If thoseabove love courtesy, no one will dare to slight them; if they loveright, no one will dare to disobey; if they love truth, no one willdare to hide the heart. Then, from the four corners of the earth, folkwill gather with their children on their backs; and what need willthere be for husbandry?
5. The Master said, Though a man have conned three hundred poems, ifhe stands helpless when put to govern, if he cannot answer for himselfwhen he is sent to the four corners of the earth, many as they are,what have they done for him?
6. The Master said, The man of upright life is obeyed before hespeaks; commands even go unheeded when the life is crooked.
7. The Master said, The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers.
8. Speaking of Ching, of the ducal house of Wei, the Master said, Hewas wise in his private life. When he had begun to save, he said, Thisseems enough. When he grew better off, he said, This seems plenty.When he had grown rich, he said. This seems splendour.
9. When Jan Yu was driving him to Wei, the Master said. What numbers!
Jan Yu said, Since numbers are here, what next is needed?
Wealth, said the Master.
And what comes next after wealth?
Teaching, said the Master.
10. The Master said, If I were employed for a twelve-month, much couldbe done. In three years all would be ended.
11. The Master said, If good men were to govern a land for an hundredyears, cruelty would be conquered and putting to death done away with.How true are these words!
12. The Master said, Even if a king were to govern, a lifetime wouldpass before love dawned!
13. The Master said, What is governing to a man that can rule himself?If he cannot rule himself, how shall he rule others?
14. As the disciple Jan came back from court, the Master said tohim. Why so late?
I had business of state, he answered.
Household business, said the Master. If it had been business of state,though I am out of office, I should have heard of it.
15. Duke Ting asked, Is there any one saying that can bless a kingdom?
Confucius answered, That is more than words can do. But men have asaying, To be lord is hard and to be minister is not easy. And if oneknew how hard it is to be lord, might not this one saying almost blessa kingdom?
And is there any one saying that can wreck a kingdom?
That is more than words can do, Confucius answered. But men have asaying, My only delight in being lord is that no one withstands what Isay. Now if what he says is good, and no one withstands him, is notthat good too? But if it is not good, and no one withstands him, mightnot this one saying almost wreck a kingdom?
16. The Duke of She asked, What is kingcraft?
The Master answered, For those near us to be happy and those far offto come.
17. When he was governor of Chü-fu, Tzu-hsia asked how to rule.
The Master said, Be not eager for haste; look not for small gains.Nothing done in haste is thorough, and looking for small gains bigthings are left undone.
18. The Duke of She told Confucius, Among the upright men of my clanif the father steals a sheep his son bears witness.
Confucius answered, Our clan's uprightness is unlike that. The fatherscreens his son and the son screens his father. There is uprightnessin this.
19. Fan Ch'ih asked, What is love?
The Master said, To be humble at home, earnest at work, and faithfulto all. Even among wild tribes none of this must be dropped.
20. Tzu-kung asked, What is it that we call knighthood?
The Master said, To be called a knight, a man must be shamefast in allthat he does, if he is sent to the four corners of the earth he mustnot disgrace his lord's commands.
May I ask who would come next?
He that his clansmen call a good son and his neighbours call modest.
And who would come next?
A man that clings to his word and sticks to his course, a flintylittle fellow, would perhaps come next.
And how are the crown servants of to-day?
What! The weights and measures men! said the Master. Are they worthreckoning?
21. The Master said, As I cannot get men of the middle way I have tofall back on zealous and austere men. Zealous men push ahead and takethings up, and there are things that austere men will not do.
22. The Master said, The men of the south have a saying, 'Unless he isstable a man will make neither a wizard nor a leech.' This is true.'His instability of mind may disgrace him.'
The Master said, Neglect of the omens, that is all.
23. The Master said, Gentlemen unite, but are not the same. Small menare all the same, but each for himself.
24. Tzu-kung said, If the whole countryside loved a man, how wouldthat be?
It would not do, said the Master.
And how would it be, if the whole countryside hated him?
It would not do, said the Master. It would be better if all the goodmen of the countryside loved him and all the bad men hated him.
25. The Master said, A gentleman is easy to serve and hard to please.If we go from the Way to please him, he is not pleased; but hiscommands are measured to the man. A small man is hard to serve andeasy to please. Though we go from the Way to please him, he ispleased; but he expects everything of his men.
26. The Master said, A gentleman is high-minded, not proud; the smallman is proud, but not high-minded.
27. The Master said, Strength and courage, simplicity and modesty areakin to love.
28. Tzu-lu asked, When can a man be called a knight?
The Master said, To be earnest, encouraging and kind may be calledknighthood: earnest and encouraging with his friends, and kind to hisbrothers.
29. The Master said, If a good man taught the people for seven years,they would be fit to bear arms too.
30. The Master said, To take untaught men to war is called throwingthem away.
 Jan Yu. He was in the service of the Chi, not of theDuke of Lu.
 asked, What is shame?
The Master said, To draw pay when the land keeps the Way and to drawpay when it has lost the Way, is shame.
2. To eschew strife and bragging, spite and greed, would that be love?
The Master said, That may be hard to do; but I do not know that it islove.
3. The Master said, A knight that is fond of ease does not amount to aknight.
4. The Master said, Whilst the land keeps the Way, be fearless ofspeech and fearless in deed; when the land has lost the Way, befearless in deed but soft of speech.
5. The Master said, A man of mind can always talk, but talkers are notalways men of mind. Love is always bold, though boldness is foundwithout love.
6. Nan-kung Kuo said to Confucius, Yi shot well, Ao pushed a boatover land: each died before his time. Yü and Chi toiled at theircrops, and had all below heaven.
The Master did not answer. But when Nan-kung Kuo had gone, he said,What a gentleman he is! How he honours mind!
7. The Master said, Alas! there have been gentlemen without love! Butthere has never been a small man that was not wanting in love.
8. The Master said, Can he love thee that never tasks thee? Can he befaithful that never chides?
9. The Master said, The decrees were drafted by P'i Shen, criticisedby Shih-shu, polished by the Foreign Minister Tzu-yü, and given thefinal touches by Tzu-ch'an of Tung-li.
10. When he was asked what he thought of Tzu-ch'an, the Master said, Akind-hearted man.
Asked what he thought of Tzu-hsi, the Master said, Of him! What Ithink of him!
Asked what he thought of Kuan Chung, the Master said, He was theman that drove the Po from the town of Pien with its three hundredhouseholds to end his days on coarse rice, without his muttering aword.
11. The Master said, Not to grumble at being poor is hard, not to beproud of wealth is easy.
12. The Master said, Meng Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be steward ofChao or Wei, but he could not be minister of T'eng or Hsieh.
13. Tzu-lu asked what would make a full-grown man.
The Master said, The wisdom of Tsang Wu-chung, Kung-ch'o's lack ofgreed, Chuang of Pien's boldness and the skill of Jan Ch'iu, graced bycourtesy and music, might make a full-grown man.
But now, he said, who asks the like of a full-grown man? He that insight of gain thinks of right, who when danger looms stakes his life,who, though the bond be old, does not forget what he has been sayingall his life, might make a full-grown man.
14. Speaking of Kung-shu Wen, the Master said to Kung-ming Chia, Is ittrue that thy master does not speak, nor laugh, nor take a gift?
Kung-ming Chia answered, That is saying too much. My master onlyspeaks when the time comes, so no one tires of his speaking; he onlylaughs when he is merry, so no one tires of his laughter; he onlytakes when it is right to take, so no one tires of his taking.
It may be so, said the Master; but is it?
15. The Master said, When he held Fang and asked Lu to appoint anheir, though Tsang Wu-chung said he was not forcing his lord, I do notbelieve it.
16. The Master said, Duke Wen of Chin was deep, but dishonest; DukeHuan of Ch'i was honest, but shallow.
17. Tzu-lu said, When Duke Huan slew the young duke Chiu, and Shao Hudied with him, but Kuan Chung did not, was not this want of love?
The Master said, Duke Huan gathered the great vassals round him, notby chariots of war, but through the might of Kuan Chung. What can lovedo more? What can love do more?
18. Tzu-kung said, When Duke Huan slew the young duke Chiu, and KuanChung could not face death and even became his minister, surely heshowed want of love?
The Master said, By Kuan Chung helping Duke Huan to put down the greatvassals and make all below heaven one, men have fared the better fromthat day to this. But for Kuan Chung our hair would hang down ourbacks and our coats would button to the left; or should he, like thebumpkin and his lass, their troth to keep, have drowned in a ditch,unknown to anyone?
19. The minister Hsien, who had been steward to Kung-shu Wen, went toaudience of the Duke together with Wen.
When the Master heard of it, he said, He is rightly called Wen(well-bred).
20. The Master spake of Ling Duke of Wei's contempt for the Way.
K'ang said, If this be so, how does he escape ruin?
Confucius answered, With Chung-shu Yü in charge of the guests, thereader T'o in charge of the Ancestral Temple, and Wang-sun Chia incharge of the troops, how should he come to ruin?
21. The Master said, When words are unblushing, they are hard to makegood.
22. Ch'en Ch'eng murdered Duke Chien.
Confucius bathed, and went to court and told Duke Ai, saying, Ch'enHeng has murdered his lord: pray, punish him.
The Duke said, Tell the three chiefs.
Confucius said, As I follow in the wake of the ministers, I dared notleave this untold; but the lord says, Tell the three chiefs.
He told the three chiefs. It did no good.
Confucius said, As I follow in the wake of the ministers, I dared notleave this untold.
23. Tzu-lu asked how to serve a lord.
The Master said, Never cheat him; stand up to him.
24. The Master said, A gentleman's life leads upwards; the small man'slife leads down.
25. The Master said, The men of old learned for their own sake; to-daymen learn for show.
26. Ch'ü Po-yü sent a man to Confucius.
As they sat together, Confucius asked him, What does your master do?
He answered, My master wishes to make his faults fewer, but cannot.
When the messenger had left, the Master said, A messenger, a messengerindeed!
27. The Master said, When not in office discuss not policy.
28. Tseng-tzu said, Even in his thoughts, a gentleman does not outstephis place.
29. The Master said, A gentleman is shamefast of speech: his deeds gofurther.
30. The Master said, In the way of the gentleman there are threethings that I cannot achieve. Love is never troubled; wisdom has nodoubts; courage is without fear.
That is what ye say, Sir, said Tzu-kung.
31. Tzu-kung would liken this man to that.
The Master said, What talents Tz'u has! Now I have no time for this.
32. The Master said, Sorrow not at being unknown; sorrow for thine ownshortcomings.
33. The Master said, Not to expect to be cheated, nor to look forfalsehood, and yet to see them coming, shows worth in a man.
34. Wei-sheng Mou said to Confucius, How dost thou still find rooststo roost on, Ch'iu, unless by wagging a glib tongue?
Confucius answered, I dare not wag a glib tongue; but I hatestubbornness.
35. The Master said, A steed is not praised for his strength, butpraised for his mettle.
36. One said, To mete out good for evil, how were that?
And how would ye meet good? said the Master. Meet evil with justice;meet good with good.
37. The Master said, Alas! no man knows me! Tzu-kung said, Why do yesay, Sir, that no man knows you?
The Master said, Never murmuring against Heaven, nor finding faultwith men; learning from the lowest, cleaving the heights. I am knownbut to one, but to Heaven.
38. Liao, the duke's uncle, spake ill of Tzu-lu to Chi-sun.
Tzu-fu Ching-po told this to Confucius, saying, My master's mind issurely being led astray by the duke's uncle, but I have still thestrength to expose his body in the market-place.
The Master said, If the Way is to be kept, that is the Bidding, and ifthe Way is to be lost, this is the Bidding. What can the duke's uncledo against the Bidding?
39. The Master said, Men of worth flee the world; the next best fleethe land. Then come those that go at a look, then those that go atwords.
40. The Master said, Seven men did so.
41. Tzu-lu spent a night at Shih-men.
The gate-keeper asked him, Whence comest thou?
From Confucius, answered Tzu-lu.
The man that knows it is no good and yet must still be doing? said thegate-keeper.
42. When the Master was chiming his sounding stones in Wei, abasket-bearer said, as he passed the door, The heart is full thatchimes those stones! But then he said, For shame! What a tinklingsound! If no one knows thee, have done!
Wade the deep places,Lift thy robe through the shallows!
The Master said, Where there's a will, that is nowise hard.
43. Tzu-chang said, What does the Book mean by saying thatKao-tsung in his mourning shed did not speak for three years?
Why pick out Kao-tsung? said the Master. The men of old were all thus.For three years after their lord had died, the hundred officers dideach his duty and hearkened to the chief minister.
44. The Master said, When those above love courtesy, the people areeasy to lead.
45. Tzu-lu asked, What makes a gentleman?
The Master said, To be bent on becoming better.
Is that all? said Tzu-lu.
By becoming better to bring peace to men.
And is that all?
By becoming better to bring peace to all men, said the Master. EvenYao and Shun were still struggling to become better, and so bringpeace to all men.
46. Yüan Jang awaited the Master squatting.
Unruly when young, unmentioned as man, undying when old, spellsgood-for-nothing! said the Master, and he hit him on the leg with hisstaff.
47. When a lad from the village of Ch'üeh was made messenger, someoneasked, saying, Is it because he is doing well?
The Master said, I have seen him sitting in a man's seat, and seen himwalking abreast of his elders. He does not try to do well: he wishesto be quickly grown up.
 The disciple Yüan Ssu.
 Yi was killed by his best pupil, who said to himself,In all the world no one but Yi shoots better than I do. So he killedhim.
 Chiu and Huan were brothers, sons of the Duke of Ch'i.When their father died, their uncle seized the throne. To preserve therightful heir, Shao Hu and Kuan Chung fled with Chiu to Lu, whilstHuan escaped to another state. Later on the usurper was murdered, andHuan returned to Ch'i and secured the throne. He then required theDuke of Lu to kill his brother and deliver up to him Shao Hu and KuanChung. This was done. But on the way to Ch'i Shao Hu killed himself.Kuan Chung, on the other hand, took service under Duke Huan, becamehis chief minister, and raised the state to greatness. (See note toBook III, § 22.)
 Chi K'ang.
 481 b.c., two years before the death of Confucius, whowas not at the time in office. Chien was Duke of Ch'i, a statebordering on Lu. The three chiefs were the heads of the three greatclans that were all-powerful in Lu.
 The head of the Chi clan, in whose service Tzu-luwas.
 An emperor of the Yin dynasty.
Confucius answered. Of the ritual of dish and platter I haveheard somewhat: I have not learnt warfare.
He left the next day.
In Ch'en grain ran out. His followers were too ill to rise. Tzu-lushowed that he was put out.
Has a gentleman to face want too? he said.
Gentlemen have indeed to face want, said the Master. The small man,when he is in want, runs to excess.
2. The Master said, Tz'u, dost thou not take me for a man thathas learnt much and thought it over?
Yes, he answered: is it not so?
No, said the Master. I string all into one.
3. The Master said, Yu, how few men know great-heartedness!
4. The Master said, To rule doing nothing, was what Shun did. For whatis there to do? Self-respect and to set the face to rule, is all.
5. Tzu-chang asked how to get on.
The Master said, Be faithful and true of word, plain and lowly in thywalk; thou wilt get on even in tribal lands. If thy words be notfaithful and true, thy walk not plain and lowly, wilt thou get oneven in thine own town? Standing, see these words ranged before thee;driving, see them written upon the yoke. Then thou wilt get on.
Tzu-chang wrote them on his girdle.
6. The Master said, Straight indeed was the historian Yü! Like anarrow whilst the land kept the Way; and like an arrow when it lost theWay! What a gentleman was Ch'ü Po-yü! Whilst the land kept the Way hetook office, and when the land had lost the Way he rolled himself upin thought.
7. The Master said, Not to speak to him that has ears to hear is tospill the man. To speak to a man without ears to hear is to spill thywords. Wisdom spills neither man nor words.
8. The Master said, A high will, or a loving heart, will not seek lifeat cost of love. To fulfil love they will kill the body.
9. Tzu-kung asked how to attain to love.
The Master said, A workman bent on good work must first sharpen histools. In the land that is thy home, serve those that are worthy amongthe great and make friends with loving knights.
10. Yen Yüan asked how to rule a kingdom.
The Master said, Follow the Hsia seasons, drive in the chariot of Yin,wear the head-dress of Chou, take for music the Shao and its dance.Banish the strains of Cheng and flee men that are glib; for thestrains of Cheng are wanton and glib speakers are dangerous.
11. The Master said. Without thought for far off things, there shallbe trouble near at hand.
12. The Master said, All is ended! I have seen no one that loves mindas he loves looks!
13. The Master said, Did not Tsang Wen filch his post? He knew theworth of Liu-hsia Hui, and did not stand by him.
14. The Master said, By asking much of self and little of other menill feeling is banished.
15. The Master said, Unless a man say, Would this do? Would that do? Ican do nothing for him.
16. The Master said, When all day long there is no talk of right, andlittle wiles find favour, the company is in hard case.
17. The Master said, Right is the stuff of which a gentleman is made.Done with courtesy, spoken with humility, rounded with truth, rightmakes a gentleman.
18. The Master said, His shortcomings trouble a gentleman; to beunknown does not trouble him.
19. The Master said, A gentleman fears that his name shall be no moreheard when life is done.
20. The Master said, A gentleman asks of himself, the small man asksof others.
21. The Master said, A gentleman is firm, not quarrelsome; a friend,not a partisan.
22. The Master said, A gentleman does not raise a man for his words,nor spurn the speech for the man.
23. Tzu-kung said, Is there one word by which we may walk till lifeends?
The Master said, Fellow-feeling, perhaps. Do not do unto others whatthou wouldst not have done to thee.
24. The Master said, Of the men that I meet, whom do I cry down, whomdo I overpraise? Or, if I overpraise them, it is after testing them.It was owing to this people that the three lines of kings went thestraight way.
25. The Master said, I have still known historians that would leave agap in their text, and men that would lend a horse to another to ride.Now it is so no more.
26. The Master said, Cunning words confound the mind; petty impatienceconfounds great projects.
27. The Master said, The hatred of the many must be looked into; thelove of the many must be looked into.
28. The Master said, The man can exalt the Way: it is not the Way thatexalts the man.
29. The Master said, The fault is to cleave to a fault.
30. The Master said, I have spent whole days without food and wholenights without sleep, thinking, and gained nothing by it. Learning isbetter.
31. The Master said, A gentleman thinks of the Way; he does not thinkof food. Sow, and famine may follow; learn, and pay may come; but agentleman grieves for the Way; to be poor does not grieve him.
32. The Master said, What wisdom has got will be lost again, unlesslove hold it fast. Wisdom to get and love to hold fast, withoutdignity of bearing, will not be honoured among men. Wisdom to get,love to hold fast and dignity of bearing, without courteous ways arenot enough.
33. The Master said, A gentleman has no small knowledge, but he cancarry out big things: the small man can carry out nothing big, but hemay be knowing in small things.
34. The Master said, Love is more to the people than fire and water. Ihave seen men come to their death by fire and water: I have seen noman that love brought to his death.
35. The Master said, When love is at stake yield not to an army.
36. The Master said, A gentleman is consistent, not changeless.
37. The Master said, A servant of the king honours his work, and putsfood after it.
38. The Master said, Learning knows no rank.
39. The Master said, Mingle not in projects with a man whose way isnot thine.
40. The Master said, The whole end of speech is to be understood.
41. When he saw the music-master Mien, the Master said, as they cameto the steps, Here are the steps. On coming to the mat, he said, Hereis the mat. When all were seated, the Master told him, He and he arehere.
After the music-master had gone, Tzu-chang said, Is this the way tospeak to a music-master?
The Master said, Surely it is the way to help a music-master.
 For sacrifice.
 Tzu-lu: probably said to him on the occasion mentionedin § I.
 Another of these seigneurs du temps jadis that ismore to us than a dim shadow, for he still lives in the pages ofMencius, who tells us that, He was not ashamed of a foul lord, and didnot refuse a small post. On coming in he did not hide his worth, butheld his own way. Neglected and idle, he did not grumble; straitenedand poor, he did not mope. When brought together with country folk hewas quite at his ease and could not bear to leave them. Thou art thou,he said, and I am I: standing beside me with thy coat off, or thy bodynaked, how canst thou defile me? (Book X, chapter 1). He stopped if ahand was raised to stop him, for he did not care whether he went or no(Book III, chapter 9).
 The man being blind, as so many musicians are in theEast.
When Confucius saw Jan Yu and Chi-lu, they said to him, The Chiis going to deal with Chuan-yü.
Confucius said, After all, Ch'iu, art thou not in the wrong? Thekings of old made Chuan-yü lord of Tung Meng. Moreover, asChuan-yü is inside our borders it is the liege of the spirits of earthand corn of our land; so how can ye make war upon it?
Jan Yu said, Our master wishes it. Tzu-lu and I, his two ministers, donot, either of us, wish it.
Confucius said, Ch'iu, Chou Jen used to say, 'He that can put forthhis strength takes his place in the line; he that cannot stands back.'Who would take to help him a man that is no stay in danger and nosupport in falling? Moreover, what thou sayest is wrong. If a tiger ora buffalo escapes from his pen, if tortoiseshell or jade is broken inits case, who is to blame?
Jan Yu said, But Chuan-yü is now strong, and it is near to Pi; ifit is not taken now, in days to come it will bring sorrow on our sonsand grandsons.
Ch'iu, said Confucius, instead of saying 'I want it,' a gentlemanhates to plead that he needs must. I have heard that fewness of mendoes not vex a king or a chief, but unlikeness of lot vexes him.Poverty does not vex him, but want of peace vexes him. For if wealthwere even, no one would be poor. In harmony is number; peace preventsa fall. Thus, if far off tribes will not submit, bring them in byencouraging mind and art, and when they come in give them peace. Butnow, when far off tribes will not submit, ye two, helpers of yourlord, cannot bring them in. The kingdom is split and falling, and yecannot save it. Yet inside our land ye plot to move spear and shield!The sorrows of Chi's grandsons will not rise in Chuan-yü, I fear: theywill rise within the palace wall.
2. Confucius said, When the Way is kept below heaven, courtesy, musicand punitive wars flow from the Son of heaven. When the Way is lostbelow heaven, courtesy, music and punitive wars flow from the greatvassals. When they flow from the great vassals they will rarely lastfor ten generations. When they flow from the great ministers they willrarely last for five generations. When underlings sway the country'sfate they will rarely last for three generations. When the Way is keptbelow heaven power does not lie with the great ministers. When the Wayis kept below heaven common folk do not argue.
3. Confucius said, For five generations its income has passed from theducal house; for four generations power has lain with the greatministers: and humbled, therefore, are the sons and grandsons of thethree Huan.
4. Confucius said, There are three friends that help us, and threethat do us harm. The friends that help us are a straight friend, anoutspoken friend, and a friend that has heard much. The friends thatharm us are plausible friends, friends that like to flatter, andfriends with a glib tongue.
5. Confucius said, There are three delights that do good, and threethat do us harm. Those that do good are delight in dissecting goodform and music, delight in speaking of the good in men, and delight inhaving many worthy friends. Those that do harm are proud delights,delight in idle roving, and delight in the joys of the feast.
6. Confucius said. Men that wait upon lords fall into three mistakes.To speak before the time has come is rashness. Not to speak when thetime has come is secrecy. To speak heedless of looks is blindness.
7. Confucius said, A gentleman has three things to guard against.
In the days of thy youth, ere thy strength is steady, beware of lust.When manhood is reached, in the fulness of strength, beware of strife.In old age, when thy strength is broken, beware of greed.
8. Confucius said, A gentleman holds three things in awe. He is inawe of the Bidding of Heaven; he is in awe of great men; and he isawed by the words of the holy.
The small man knows not the Bidding of Heaven, and holds it not inawe. He is saucy towards the great; he makes game of holy men's words.
9. Confucius said, The best men are born wise. Next come those thatgrow wise by learning; then those that learn from toil. Those that donot learn from toil are the lowest of the people.
10. Confucius said, A gentleman has nine aims. To see clearly; tounderstand what he hears; to be warm in manner, dignified in bearing,faithful of speech, keen at work; to ask when in doubt; in anger tothink of difficulties; and in sight of gain to think of right.
11. Confucius said, In sight of good to be filled with longing; tolook on evil as scalding to the touch: I have seen such men, I haveheard such words.
To live apart and search thy will; to achieve thy Way, by doing right:I have heard these words, but I have seen no such men.
12. Ching, Duke of Ch'i, had a thousand teams of horses; but thepeople, on his death day, found no good in him to praise. Po-yiand Shu-ch'i starved at the foot of Shou-yang, and to this daythe people still praise them.
Is not this the clue to that?
13. Ch'en K'ang asked Po-yü, Apart from us, have ye heardanything, Sir?
He answered, No: once as my father stood alone and I sped across thehall, he said to me, Art thou learning poetry? I answered, No. He thatdoes not learn poetry, he said, has no hold on words. I withdrew andlearned poetry.
Another day, when he again stood alone and I sped across the hall, hesaid to me, Art thou learning courtesy? I answered, No. He that doesnot learn courtesy, he said, has no foothold. I withdrew and learnedcourtesy. These two things I have heard.
Ch'en K'ang withdrew, and cried gladly, I asked one thing, and I getthree! I hear of poetry; I hear of courtesy; and I hear too that agentleman stands aloof from his son.
14. A king speaks of his wife as 'my wife.' She calls herself'handmaid.' Her subjects speak of her as 'our lord's wife,' but whenthey speak to foreigners, they say 'our little queen.' Foreignersspeak of her, too, as 'the lord's wife.'
 A small feudatory state of Lu.
 Tzu-lu. He and Jan Yu were in the service of the Chi.
 Jan Yu.
 A mountain in Chuan-yü. Since the Emperor had given theruler of Chuan-yü the right to sacrifice to its mountains, that statehad some measure of independence, though it was feudatory to Lu, andwithin its borders.
 A town belonging to the Chi.
 Of Lu.
 The disciple Tzu-ch'in.
 The son of Confucius.
 wished to see Confucius. Confucius did not go to seehim. He sent Confucius a sucking pig. Confucius chose a time when hewas out, and went to thank him. They met on the road.
He said to Confucius, Come, let us speak together. To cherish a gem,and undo the kingdom, can that be called love?
It cannot, said Confucius.
To love office, and miss the hour again and again, can that be calledwisdom?
It cannot, said Confucius.
The days and months go by; the years do not wait for us.
True, said Confucius; I must take office.
2. The Master said, Men are near to each other by nature; the livesthey lead sunder them.
3. The Master said, Only the wisest and stupidest of men never change.
4. As the Master came to Wu-ch'eng he heard sounds of lute andsong.
Why use an ox-knife to kill a fowl? said the Master, with a pleasedsmile.
Tzu-yu answered, Master, once I heard you say, A gentleman that haslearnt the Way loves men; small folk that have learnt the Way are easyto rule.
My two-three boys, said the Master, what Yen says is true. Ispake before in play.
5. Kung-shan Fu-jao held Pi in rebellion. He called the Master,who wished to go.
Tzu-lu said in displeasure. This cannot be! why must ye go toKung-shan?
The Master said, He calls me, and would that be all? Could I not makean Eastern Chou of him that uses me?
6. Tzu-chang asked Confucius what is love.
Confucius said, Love is to mete out five things to all below heaven.
May I ask what they are?
Modesty and bounty, said Confucius, truth, earnestness and kindness.Modesty escapes insult: bounty wins the many; truth gains men's trust;earnestness brings success; and kindness is enough to make men work.
7. Pi Hsi called the Master, who wished to go.
Tzu-lu said, Master, I heard you say once, To men whose own life isevil, no gentleman will go. Pi Hsi holds Chung-mou in rebellion; howcould ye go to him, Sir?
Yes, I said so, answered the Master. But is not a thing called hardthat cannot be ground thin; white, if steeping will not turn it black?And am I a gourd? Can I hang without eating?
8. The Master said, Hast thou heard the six words, Yu, and thesix they sink into?
He answered. No.
Sit down, and I shall tell thee. The thirst for love, without love oflearning, sinks into simpleness. Love of knowledge, without love oflearning, sinks into vanity. Love of truth, without love of learning,sinks into cruelty. Love of straightness, without love of learning,sinks into rudeness. Love of daring, without love of learning, sinksinto turbulence. Love of strength, without love of learning, sinksinto oddity.
9. The Master said, My little children, why do ye not learn poetry?Poetry would ripen you; teach you insight, friendliness andforbearance; show you how to serve your father at home; and teach yourlord abroad; and it would teach you the names of many birds andbeasts, plants and trees.
10. The Master said to Po-yü, Hast thou done the Chou-nan andShao-nan? He that has not done the Chou-nan and Shao-nan is likea man standing with his face to the wall.
11. The Master said, 'Courtesy, courtesy,' is the cry; but are jadeand silk the whole of courtesy? 'Music, music,' is the cry; but arebells and drums the whole of music?
12. The Master said, Fierce looks and weakness within are like thesmall man, like the thief that breaks through or clambers over a wall.
13. The Master said, The plain townsman is the bane of mind.
14. The Master said, To tell unto the dust all that we hear upon theway is to lay waste the mind.
15. The Master said, How can we serve the king with a low fellow, whois itching to get what he wants and trembling to lose what he has?This trembling to lose what he has may lead him anywhere.
16. The Master said, Men of old had three failings, which have,perhaps, died out to-day. Ambitious men of old were not nice; now theyare unprincipled. Stern men of old were hard; now they arequarrelsome. Ignorant men of old were straight; now they are false.That is all.
17. The Master said, Smooth words and fawning looks are seldom foundwith love.
18. The Master said, I hate the ousting of scarlet by purple. I hatethe strains of Cheng, confounders of sweet music. I hate a sharptongue, the ruin of kingdom and home.
19. The Master said, I wish no word were spoken!
Tzu-kung said, Sir, if ye said no word, what could your littlechildren write?
The Master said, What are the words of Heaven? The four seasons pass,the hundred things bear life. What are the words of Heaven?
20. Ju Pei wished to see Confucius. Confucius pleaded sickness; but,as the messenger left his door, he took a lute and sang, so themessenger should hear.
21. Tsai Wo asked about mourning for three years. He thought thatone was enough.
If for three years gentlemen forsake courtesy, courtesy must suffer.If for three years they forsake music, music must decay. The old grainpasses, the new grain sprouts, the round of woods for the fire-drillis ended in one year.
The Master said, Feeding on rice, clad in brocade, couldst thou be atrest?
I could, he answered.
Then do what gives thee rest. But a gentleman, when he is mourning,has no taste for sweets and no ear for music; he cannot rest in hishome. So he gives these up. Now, they give thee rest; then keep them.
After Tsai Wo had gone, the Master said, Yü's want of love! Atthe age of three a child first leaves the arms of his father andmother, and mourning lasts for three years everywhere below heaven.But did Yü have for three years the love of his father and mother?
22. The Master said, It is hard indeed when a man eats his fill allday, and has nothing to task the mind! Could he not play at chequers?Even that were better.
23. Tzu-lu said, Do gentlemen honour daring?
They put right higher, said the Master. With daring and no sense ofright gentlemen turn rebels and small men turn robbers.
24. Tzu-kung said, Do gentlemen hate too?
They do, said the Master. They hate the sounding of evil deeds; theyhate men of low estate that slander those over them; they hate daringwithout courtesy; they hate men that are stout and fearless, butblind.
And Tz'u, he said, dost thou hate too?
I hate those that take spying for wisdom, who take want of manners forcourage, and take tale-telling for honesty.
25. The Master said, Only maids and serving-lads are hard to train. Ifwe draw near to them, they get unruly; if we hold them off, they growspiteful.
26. The Master said, When a man of forty is hated, he will be so tothe end.
 The all-powerful, unscrupulous minister of the Chi.
 A very small town, of which the disciple Tzu-yu wasgovernor.
 Steward of the Chi, and a confederate of Yang Huo.
 A kingdom in the east to match Chou in the west, thehome of Kings Wen and Wu.
 His son.
 The first two books of The Book of Poetry.
 A disciple.
 Tsai Wo.
 left, the lord of Chi was made a slave,Pi-kan spake out, and died.
Confucius said, Three of the Yin had love.
2. Whilst Liu-hsia Hui was Chief Knight he was dismissedthrice.
Men said. Is it not yet time to leave. Sir?
He answered, If I serve men the straight way, where can I go withoutbeing dismissed thrice? If I am to serve men the crooked way, whyshould I leave the land of my father and mother?
3. Speaking of how to treat Confucius, Ching, Duke of Ch'i, said, Icannot treat him as I do the Chi. I put him between Chi and Meng.
I am old, he said; I cannot use him.
4. The men of Ch'i sent a gift of music girls. Chi Huan acceptedthem, and for three days no court was held.
5. Chieh-yü, the mad-head of Ch'u, as he passed Confucius, sang,
Confucius alighted, for he wished to speak with him: but he hurriedaway, and he could not speak with him.
Phoenix, bright phoenix,Thy glory is ended!Think of to-morrow;The past can't be mended.Up and away!The Court is todayWith danger attended.
6. Ch'ang-chü and Chieh-ni were working in the fields. As Confuciuspassed them, he sent Tzu-lu to ask for the ford.
Ch'ang-chü said, Who is that holding the reins?
He is K'ung Ch'iu, said Tzu-lu.
Is he K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?
Yes, said Tzu-lu.
He knows the ford, said Ch'ang-chü.
Tzu-lu asked Chieh-ni.
Who are ye, Sir? he answered.
I am Chung Yu.
The disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?
Yes, he answered.
All below heaven is seething and boiling, said Chieh-ni, who canchange it? How much better would it be to follow a knight that fleesthe world than to follow a knight that flees persons!
And he went on hoeing without stop.
Tzu-lu went and told the Master, whose face fell.
Can I herd with birds and beasts? he said. Whom but these men can Itake as fellows? And if the Way were kept by all below heaven, Ishould not need to change them.
7. Tzu-lu, who was following behind, met an old man carrying a basketon his staff.
Tzu-lu asked him, Have ye seen the Master, Sir?
The old man answered, Thy four limbs are idle, thou canst not sort thefive seeds: who is thy Master?
And he planted his staff, and weeded.
Tzu-lu stood and bowed.
He kept Tzu-lu for the night, killed a fowl, made millet, gave themhim to eat, and presented his two sons.
Tzu-lu left the next day, and told the Master.
The Master said, He is in hiding.
He sent Tzu-lu back to see him; but when he arrived he had gone.
Tzu-lu said, Not to take office is not right. If the ties of old andyoung cannot be thrown off, how can he throw off the liege's duty tohis lord? He wishes to keep his life clean, but he is unsettling thebonds between men. To discharge that duty a gentleman takes office,though he knows beforehand that the Way will not be kept.
8. Po-yi, Shu-ch'i, Yü-chung, Yi-yi, Chu-chang, Liu-hsia Hui andShao-lien were men that hid from the world.
The Master said, Po-yi and Shu-ch'i did not bend the will orshame the body.
We must say that Liu-hsia Hui and Shao-lien bent the will andshamed the body. Their words hit man's duty, their deeds hit ourhopes. This we can say and no more.
We may say that Yü-chung and Yi-yi lived hidden, but were free ofspeech. Their lives were clean, their retreat was well weighed.
But I am unlike all of them: there is nothing I must, or must not, do.
9. Chih, the Great Music-master, went to Ch'i; Kan, the conductor atthe second meal, went to Ch'u; Liao, the conductor at the third meal,went to Ts'ai; Chüeh, the conductor at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.The drum master Fang-shu crossed the River; the tambourine master Wucrossed the Han; Yang the second bandmaster and Hsiang, who played thesounding stones, crossed the sea.
10. The Duke of Chou said to the Duke of Lu, A gentlemandoes not forsake kinsmen, nor offend his great lieges by not usingthem. He will not cast off an old friend unless he have big cause; hedoes not ask everything of anyone.
11. Chou had eight knights: Po-ta and Po-kuo, Chung-tu and Chung-hu,Shu-yeh and Shu-hsia, Chi-sui and Chi-kua.
 Kinsmen of the tyrant Chou Hsin, who brought the houseof Yin to an end.
 Kinsmen of the tyrant Chou Hsin, who brought the houseof Yin to an end.
 Kinsmen of the tyrant Chou Hsin, who brought the houseof Yin to an end.
 Or Criminal Judge.
 To Lu, 497 b.c. The turning-point in Confucius'scareer. He left office and his native land, and wandered abroad fortwelve long years.
 His son.
2. Tzu-hsia said, Goodness, clutched too narrowly; a belief in the Waywhich is not honest; can they be said to be, or said not to be?
3. The disciples of Tzu-hsia asked Tzu-chang whom we should choose asour companions.
Tzu-chang said. What does Tzu-hsia say?
They answered, Tzu-hsia says, If the men be well for thee, go withthem; if they be not well, push them off.
Tzu-chang said. This is not the same as what I had heard. A gentlemanhonours worth and bears with the many. He applauds goodness and pitiesweakness. If I were a man of great worth, what could I not bear within others? If I am without worth, men will push me off: why should Ipush other men off?
4. Tzu-hsia said, Though there must be things worth seeing along smallways, a gentleman does not follow them, for fear of being left at lastin the mire.
5. Tzu-hsia said, He that each day remembers his failings and eachmonth forgets nothing won may be said to love learning indeed!
6. Tzu-hsia said, By wide learning and singleness of will, by keenquestions and home thinking we reach love.
7. Tzu-hsia said, To master the hundred trades, apprentices work in ashop; by learning, a gentleman finds his way.
8. Tzu-hsia said, The small man must always gloss his faults.
9. Tzu-hsia said, A gentleman changes thrice. Looking up to him heseems stern; as we draw near, he warms; but his speech, when we hearit, is sharp.
10. Tzu-hsia said, Until they trust him, a gentleman lays no burdenson his people. If they do not trust him, they will think it cruel.Until they trust him, he does not chide them. Unless they trust him,it will seem fault-finding.
11. Tzu-hsia said, If we keep within the bounds of honour, we can stepto and fro through propriety.
12. Tzu-yu said, The disciples, the little sons of Tzu-hsia, cansprinkle and sweep, attend and answer, come in and go out; but whatcan come of twigs without roots?
When Tzu-hsia heard this, he said, Yen Yu is wrong. If we teachone thing in the way of a gentleman first, shall we tire beforereaching the next? Thus plants and trees differ in size. Should theway of a gentleman bewilder him? To learn it, first and last, none butthe holy are fit.
13. Tzu-hsia said, A servant of the crown should give his sparestrength to learning. With his spare strength a scholar should servethe crown.
14. Tzu-yu said, Mourning should stretch to grief, and stop there.
15. Tzu-yu said, Our friend Chang can do hard things, but love isnot yet his.
16. Tseng-tzu said, Chang is so spacious, so lordly, that at his sideit is hard to do what love bids.
17. Tseng-tzu said, I have heard the Master say, Man never shows whatis in him unless it be in mourning those dear to him.
18. Tseng-tzu said, I have heard the Master say, In all else we may beas good a son as Meng Chuang, but in not changing his father'sministers, or his father's rule, he is hard to match.
19. The Meng made Yang Fu Chief Knight, who spake toTseng-tzu about it.
Tseng-tzu said, Those above have lost their way, the people have longbeen astray. When thou dost get at the truth, be moved to pity, notpuffed with joy.
20. Tzu-kung said, Chou was not so very wicked! Thus a gentlemanhates to live in a hollow, down into which runs all that is foul belowheaven.
21. Tzu-kung said, A gentleman's faults are like the eating of sun ormoon. All men see them, and when he mends all men look up to him.
22. Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tzu-kung, From whom did Chung-nilearn?
Tzu-kung said, The Way of Wen and Wu has not fallen into ruin. Itlives in men: the big in big men, the small in small men. In none ofthem is the Way of Wen and Wu missing. How should the Master not learnit? What need had he for a set teacher?
23. In talk with the great men of the court Shu-sun Wu-shu said,Tzu-kung is worthier than Chung-ni.
Tzu-fu Ching-po told this to Tzu-kung.
Tzu-kung said, This is like the palace wall. My wall reaches to theshoulder: peeping over you see the good home within. The Master's wallis several fathoms high: no one can see the beauty of the AncestralTemple and the wealth of its hundred officers, unless he gets in bythe gate. And if only a few men find the gate, may not my lord havespoken the truth?
24. Shu-sun Wu-shu cried down Chung-ni.
Tzu-kung said, It is labour lost. Chung-ni cannot be cried down. Thegreatness of other men is a hummock, over which we can still leap.Chung-ni is the sun or moon, which no one can overleap. Though the manwere willing to kill himself, how could he hurt the sun or moon? Thathe does not know his own measure would only be seen the better!
25. Ch'en Tzu-ch'in said to Tzu-kung, Ye humble yourself, Sir. Inwhat is Chung-ni your better?
Tzu-kung said, By one word a gentleman shows wisdom, by one word wantof wisdom. Words must not be lightly spoken. No one can come up to theMaster, as heaven is not to be climbed by steps. If the Master hadpower in a kingdom, or a clan, the saying would come true, 'What hesets up stands; he shows the way and men go it, he brings peace andthey come, he stirs them and they are at one. Honoured in life, he ismourned when dead!' Who can come up to him?
 The chief of the Meng clan, powerful in Lu.
 A disciple of Tseng-tzu.
 Or criminal judge.
 The tyrant that ended the Yin dynasty.
 An eclipse.
 Head of the Meng clan.
 A disciple of Tzu-kung.
BOOK XX1. Yao said, Hail to thee, Shun! The count that Heaven is tellingfalls on thee. Keep true hold of the centre. If there be stress orwant within the four seas, the gift of Heaven will pass for ever.
Shun laid the same commands on Yü.
T'ang said, I, Thy little child Li, dare to offer this black steer,and dare to proclaim before Thee, Almighty Lord, that I dare notforgive sin, nor keep down Thy ministers. Search them, O Lord, inThine heart. If Our life be sinful, visit it not upon the ten thousandhomesteads. If the ten thousand homesteads sin, the sin is on Ourhead.
Chou bestowed great gifts, and good men grew rich.
'Loving hearts are better than near kinsmen. All the people blame noone but me.'
He saw to weights and measures, revised the laws, and brought backbroken officers. Order reigned everywhere. He revived ruined kingdomsand restored fiefs that had fallen in. All hearts below heaven turnedto him. The people's food, burials and worship weighed most with him.His bounty gained the many, his truth won the people's trust, hisearnestness brought success, his justice made men glad.
2. Tzu-chang asked Confucius, How should men be governed?
The Master said, To govern men we must honour five fair things andspurn four evil things.
Tzu-chang said, What are the five fair things?
The Master said, A gentleman is kind, but not wasteful; he burdens,but he does not embitter; he is covetous, but not greedy; high-minded,but not proud; stern, but not fierce.
Tzu-chang said, What is meant by kindness without waste?
The Master said, To further what furthers the people, is not thatkindness without waste? If burdens be sorted to strength, who willgrumble? To covet love and get love, is that greed? Few or many, smallor great, all is one to a gentleman: he dares not slight any man. Isnot this to be high-minded, but not proud? A gentleman straightens hisrobe and cap, and settles his look. He is severe, and men look up tohim with awe. Is not this to be stern, but not fierce?
Tzu-chang said, What are the four evil things?
The Master said, To leave untaught and then kill is cruelty; not togive warning and to expect things to be done is tyranny; to givecareless orders and be strict when the day comes is robbery; to bestingy in rewarding men is littleness.
3. The Master said, He that does not know the Bidding cannot be agentleman. Not to know good form is to have no foothold. Not to knowwords is to know nothing of men.
 This chapter shows the principles on which China wasgoverned in old times. Yao and Shun were the legendary founders of theChinese Empire, Yü, T'ang, and Chou were the first emperors of thehouses of Hsia, Shang and Chou, which had ruled China up till the timeof Confucius.
 Said by King Wu (Chou). The people blamed him for notdethroning at once the tyrant Chou Hsin.
(Aspirated and unaspirated letters have been treated as differentletters. The aspirated letter follows immediately the unaspirated;e.g. t'a comes after tung.)
- Ai, Duke of Lu, name Chiang, reigned 494-68 b.c.;
- Ao, xiv. 6, a man of the Hsia dynasty famous for his strength.
- Chang, xix. 15, 16 = Tzu-chang, whom see.
- Chao, vi. 14, Prince of Sung, his beauty.
- Chao, Duke of Lu, reigned 541-10 b.c.;
- vii. 30 (and note), the Master deems him well bred.
- Chao, one of the great families that governed the state of Chin;
- xiv. 12, Meng Kung-ch'o, fit to be steward of.
- Chao-nan, xvii. 10, the first book of the Book of Poetry, a collection of old Chinese songs.
- Cheng, a state of ancient China;
- Chi, or Chi-sun, one of the three great houses of Lu, who had grasped all power in the state. The others were Meng-sun and Shu-sun. They were all descended from Duke Huan by a concubine.
- Chi, the Chi, head of the Chi clan, first Chi Huan and then Chi K'ang;
- iii. 1, had eight rows of dancers in his hall;
- iii. 6, worshipped on Mount T'ai;
- vi. 7, wishes to make Min Tzu-ch'ien governor of Pi;
- xi. 16, richer than the Duke of Chou;
- xiii. 2, Chung-kung is his steward;
- xvi. 1, is about to chastise Chuan-yü;
- xviii. 3, Ching, Duke of Ch'i, would set him above Confucius.
- Chi, xiv. 6 = Hou Chi, director of husbandry under the Emperor Yao, and ancestor of the Chou dynasty.
- Chi, iii. 9, a small state.
- Chi, xviii. 1, another small state. Lord of Chi: an uncle of the tyrant Chou, last of the Yin dynasty. He was imprisoned for chiding the emperor, and to escape death feigned madness.
- Chi Huan, head of the Chi clan + 491 b.c.;
- xviii. 4, accepts singing girls from Ch'i.
- Chi-kua, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Chi K'ang, of the great house of Chi of Lu, succeeded Chi Huan as chief, 491 b.c. (see note to xii. 17);
- ii. 20, told how to make the people respectful, faithful, and willing;
- vi. 6, asks whether certain disciples were fit for power;
- x. 11, presents the Master with medicine;
- xi. 6, asks which disciples were fond of learning;
- xii. 17, asks how to rule;
- xii. 18, is vexed by robbers;
- xii. 19, asks whether we should kill the bad;
- xiv. 20, asks how Duke Ling escapes ruin.
- Chi-lu, another name for Tzu-lu.
- Chi-sui, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Chi-sun, xiv. 38, or Chi (which see), probably Chi Huan, the head of the house.
- Chi Tzu-ch'eng, xii. 8, a lord of Wei, says, A gentleman is all nature.
- Chi Tzu-jan, younger brother of Chi Huan;
- xi. 23, asks whether Yu and Ch'iu are statesmen.
- Chi Wen, v. 19, a lord of Lu, thought thrice before acting.
- Chieh-ni, xviii. 6, says the world is a seething torrent.
- Chieh-yü, xviii. 5, a famous man of Ch'u, who, disapproving of his king's conduct, supported himself by husbandry, and feigned madness in order to escape being forced into the king's service.
- Chien, xiv. 22, Duke of Ch'i, murdered by Ch'en Ch'eng 481 b.c.
- Chih, music-master of Lu; viii. 15, how grand was the ending of the Kuan-chü in his day;
- xviii. 9, went to Ch'i.
- Chin, xiv. 16, an ancient state. Duke Wen of Chin was deep but dishonest.
- Ching, Duke of Ch'i. Confucius was in Ch'i in 517 b.c.;
- Ching, xiii. 8, of ducal house of Wei, was wise in his private life.
- Chiu, brother of Duke Huan of Ch'i;
- xiv. 17, 18, slain by his brother.
- Chou, the reigning dynasty in Confucius's time, ii. 23,iii. 14, iii. 21, xv. 10, xviii. 11.
- Chou, viii. 20 = King Wen.
- Chou, xx. 1 = King Wu.
- Chou, the Duke of, see note to vii. 5;
- Chou, or Chou Hsin (reigned 1154-22 b.c.), the last emperor of the house of Yin, an infamous tyrant, finally overthrown by King Wu, when he perished in his burning palace;
- xix. 20, his wickedness was not so great.
- Chou Jen, an ancient worthy;
- xvi. 1, said, He that can put forth his strength....
- Chu-chang, xviii. 8, a man who fled the world.
- Chuan-yü, a small state in Lu, tributary to Lu;
- xvi. 1, the Chi proposes to chastise it.
- Chuang of Pien, xiv. 13, his boldness.
- Chung-hu, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Chung-kung, a disciple of Confucius: name Jan Yung, style Chung-kung, born 523 b.c.;
- Chung-mou, a town in Chin, belonging to the Chao family;
- xvii. 7, held by Pi Hsi in rebellion.
- Chung-ni, xix. 22, 23 = Confucius.
- Chung-shu Yü, minister of Wei, son of K'ung-wen;
- xiv. 20, in charge of the guests.
- Chung-tu, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Chung Yu: see Tzu-lu.
- Chü-fu, xiii. 17, a town in Lu, Tzu-hsia governor of it.
- Chüeh, xviii. 9, bandmaster of Lu, went to Ch'in.
- Ch'ai, a disciple of Confucius, name Kao Ch'ai, style Tzu-kao;
- Ch'ang-chü, xviii. 6, says Confucius knows the ford.
- Ch'en, a state in China; v. 21, xi. 2, xv. 1.
- Ch'en, judge of; vii. 30, asks whether Duke Chao was well bred.
- Ch'en Ch'eng, posthumous title of Ch'en Heng, minister of Ch'i;
- xiv. 22, murders Duke Chien of Ch'i.
- Ch'en K'ang, xvi. 13 = Tzu-ch'in, whom see.
- Ch'en Tzu-ch'in = Tzu-ch'in, whom see.
- Ch'en Wen, a lord of Ch'i;
- Ch'i, a state in ancient China, vii. 13, xviii. 3, xviii. 9;
- Ch'i-tiao K'ai, a disciple of Confucius, style Tzu-jo;
- v. 5, wants confidence to take office.
- Ch'ih, the name of Kung-hsi Hua, whom see.
- Ch'in, a state in western China, xviii. 9.
- Ch'iu, the name of Jan Yu, whom see; xiv. 34, the name of Confucius.
- Ch'u, an ancient state, xviii. 5, 9.
- Ch'ü Po-yü, minister of Wei, a friend of Confucius, who stayed with him when in Wei;
- Ch'üeh, a village;
- xiv. 47, a lad from, made messenger by Confucius.
- Fan Ch'ih, a disciple of Confucius, name Fan Hsü, style Tzu-ch'ih;
- Fang, xiv. 15, a town of Lu, a fief in the hands of Tsang Wu-chung.
- Fang-shu, xviii. 9, drum-master of Lu, crossed the river.
- Han, xviii. 9, the river that enters the Yangtze at Hankow.
- Hsia = China, also the name of a dynasty, ii. 23, iii. 9, 21, xv. 10.
- Hsiang, xviii. 9, who played the sounding stones, crossed the sea.
- Hsieh, xiv. 12, a small state: Meng Kung-ch'o not fit to be minister of.
- Hsien, xiv. 1: see Yüan Ssu.
- Hsien, xiv. 19, steward to Kung-shu Wen; goes to court with him.
- Hu, vii. 28, a village: it was ill talking to the people of.
- Huan, the three;
- xvi. 3, the three sons of Duke Huan of Lu, from whom the families of Meng, Shu, and Chi were descended, as also the powerless reigning duke of Lu.
- Huan, Duke of Ch'i: see note to xiv. 17;
- Huan T'ui, vii. 22, an officer of Sung, cannot harm the Master, if Heaven protect him.
- Hui: see Yen Yüan.
- Jan Ch'iu: see Jan Yu.
- Jan Po-niu, a disciple of Confucius, name Jan Keng, style Po-niu, born 544 b.c.; xi. 2, was of noble life.
- Jan Yu, a disciple of Confucius, name Jan Ch'in, style Tzu-yu, born 520 b.c.;
- iii. 6, cannot stop the Chi worshipping on Mount T'ai;
- v. 7, the Master cannot say that he has love;
- vi. 3, gives Tzu-hua's mother grain;
- vi. 6, has ability and so is fit to govern;
- vi. 10, lacks strength to follow Confucius;
- vii. 14, asks whether the Master is for the King of Wei;
- xi. 2, was a statesman;
- xi. 12, was fresh and frank;
- xi. 16, is tax-gatherer to the Chi;
- xi. 21, asks whether he shall do all that he is taught;
- xi. 23, is a tool, not a statesman;
- xi. 25, wishes for charge of sixty, or seventy, square miles;
- xiii. 9, drives the Master towards Wei;
- xiii. 14, says business of state detained him at court;
- xiv. 13, his skill;
- xvi. 1, is minister to the Chi, when he proposes to attack Chuan-yü.
- Ju Pei, an officer of Lu, who had been taught by Confucius;
- xvii. 20, wishes to see Confucius, who pleads sickness.
- Kan, xviii. 9, music-master of Lu, went to Ch'u.
- Kao-tsung, the Emperor Wu Ting of the house of Yin, reigned 1324-1265 b.c.;
- xiv. 43, on the death of his predecessor did not speak for three years.
- Kao-yao, xii. 22, made criminal judge by Shun and evil vanished.
- Kuan Chung, personal name Yi-wu, chief minister to Duke Huan of Ch'i, + 645 b.c.: see notes to iii. 22, xiv. 17;
- Kung-ch'o xiv. 13: see Meng Kung-ch'o.
- Kung-hsi Hua, a disciple of Confucius, name Kung-hsi Ch'ih, style Tzu-hua, born in Lu, 510 b.c. He was entrusted with the management of the Master's funeral;
- v. 7, the Master cannot say whether he has love;
- vi. 3, sent to Ch'i; Confucius is asked to give his mother grain;
- vii. 33, says the disciples cannot learn the Master's endless craving;
- xi. 21, is puzzled by the Master's different answers;
- xi. 25, would like to play an humble part in Ancestral Temple.
- Kung-ming Chia a man of Wei;
- xiv. 14, says Kung-shu Wen speaks when it is time to speak.
- Kung-shan Fu-jao, xvii. 5, a confederate of Yang Huo, held Pi in rebellion.
- Kung-shu, the name of a great family in Wei.
- Kung-shu Wen, of the above family, a minister of Wei;
- Kung-sun Ch'ao, xix. 22, asks, 'Where did Confucius get his learning?'
- Kung-yeh Ch'ang, a disciple of Confucius;
- v. 1, married to Confucius's daughter, though he had been in prison.
- K'ang, x. 11: see Chi K'ang.
- K'uang, ix. 5;
- xi. 22, a place where the Master was affrighted.
- K'ung Ch'iu, xviii. 6, Confucius's name in Chinese. His style was Chung-ni.
- K'ung-wen, the posthumous title of K'ung Yü, a lord of Wei;
- v. 14, why he was styled cultured.
- Lao, a disciple of Confucius, name Ch'in Lao, style Tzu-k'ai;
- ix. 6, quotes the Master's saying that he learned a trade.
- Li, xi. 7, Confucius's son: see Po-yü.
- Li, xx. 1 = T'ang, whom see.
- Liao, the duke's uncle; xiv. 38, a man of Lu, slanders Tzu-lu.
- Liao, xviii. 9, bandmaster of Lu, went to Ts'ai.
- Lin Fang, iii. 4, a man of Lu, asks what gives life to ceremony;
- iii. 6, he and Mount T'ai.
- Ling, Duke of Wei, the husband of Nan-tzu (vi. 26), reigned 533-492 b.c.;
- Liu-hsia Hui, flourished about 600 b.c.: see note to xv. 13;
- Lu, the native state of Confucius, iii. 23, v. 2, vi. 22, ix. 14, xi. 13, iii. 7, xiv. 15.
- Lu, Duke of, xviii. 10, the son of the Duke of Chou.
- Meng, or Meng-sun, one of the three great families that were all-powerful in Lu.
- Meng, xviii. 3, the head of the Meng clan, Meng Yi.
- Meng, the, xix. 19, makes Yang Fu criminal judge.
- Meng Chih-fan, vi. 13, a lord of Lu, never bragged.
- Meng Ching, son of Meng Wu, a lord of Lu;
- viii. 4, comes to ask after the dying Tseng-tzu.
- Meng Chuang, xix. 18, head of the Meng clan, his piety.
- Meng Kung-ch'o head of the Meng clan, minister of Lu;
- Meng Wu, posthumous name of Meng Hsi, a lord of Lu, son of Meng Yi;
- Meng Yi, the posthumous name of Ho-chi, head of the Meng-sun, or Chung-sun, clan in Lu: a contemporary of Confucius;
- Mien, xv. 41, a blind music-master of Lu, comes to see Confucius.
- Min Tzu-ch'ien, a disciple of Confucius, name Min Sun, style Tzu-ch'ien;
- Nan Jung, a disciple of Confucius;
- Nan-kung Kuo, a disciple of Confucius, style Tzu-jung, perhaps the same man as Nan Jung;
- xiv. 6, how he prizes worth.
- Nan-tzu, wife of Ling, Duke of Wei, a dissolute woman;
- vi. 26, Confucius sees her.
- Ning Wu, posthumous title of Ning Yü, a lord of Wei;
- v. 20, such simplicity as his is beyond our reach.
- Pi, a town of Lu, belonging to the Chi;
- Pi Hsi, governor of Chung-mou in Chin for the family of Chao;
- xvii. 7, summons Confucius.
- Pi-kan, uncle of the tyrant Chou (reigned 1154-22 b.c.), last of the house of Yin;
- xviii. 1, died for his reproofs.
- Pien, xiv. 10, a town in Lu given to Kuan Chung.
- Po, the, xiv. 10, a lord of Ch'i. Duke Huan takes from him the town of Pien and gives it to Kuan Chung.
- Po-kuo, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Po-niu, a disciple of Confucius, name Jan Keng, style Po-niu, born 544 b.c.;
- vi. 8, why should he die of such an illness?
- Po-ta, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Po-yi, elder brother of Shu-ch'i, lived in twelfth century b.c.; see note to v. 22;
- Po-yü, Confucius's son;
- P'eng, vii. 1, a man of the Shang dynasty: Confucius likens himself to him.
- P'i Shen, xiv. 9, a lord of Cheng, who drafted the decrees.
- Shang, the name of Tzu-hsia, whom see.
- Shao, the music of the time of Shun;
- Shao Hu, a man of Ch'i: see note to xiv. 17;
- xiv. 17, died with the young duke Chiu.
- Shao-lien, a man supposed to have belonged to the savage tribes of eastern China;
- xviii. 8, he shamed the body.
- Shao-nan, xvii. 10, the second book of the Book of Poetry.
- She, a district in Ch'u.
- She, Duke of, vii. 18, asks Tzu-lu about Confucius, and is not answered;
- Shen, the name of Tseng-tzu, whom see.
- Shen Ch'ang, a disciple of Confucius, style Tzu-chou;
- v. 10, is passionate, cannot be firm.
- Shih, xi. 15 = Tzu-chang, whom see.
- Shih-men, a pass on the frontier of Ch'i;
- xiv. 41, Tzu-lu spends a night there.
- Shih-shu, xiv. 9, a lord of Cheng, criticised the decrees.
- Shou-yang, xvi. 12, a mountain: Po-yi and Shu-Ch'i died at its foot.
- Shu-ch'i, younger brother of Po-yi, whom see.
- Shu-hsia, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Shu-sun Wu-shu, chief of the Shu-sun, Meng-sun, or Meng family, one of the three great houses of Lu, who controlled the state;
- Shu-yeh, xviii. 11, an officer of Chou.
- Shun, an emperor, successor of Yao (reigned 2255-05 b.c.);
- vi. 28, still yearned to treat all with bounty;
- viii. 18, it was sublime how he swayed the world and made light of it;
- viii. 20, had five ministers, and order reigned;
- xii. 22, raised Kao-yao, and evil vanished;
- xiv. 45, still struggled to bring peace to all men;
- xv. 4, ruled doing nothing;
- xx. 1, his instructions from Yao on coming to the throne.
- Ssu-ma Niu, a disciple of Confucius, name Ssu-ma Keng, style Tzu-niu, a brother of Huan T'ui;
- Sung, a state, iii. 9, vi. 14.
- Ta-hsiang, ix. 2, a village: a man from, says Confucius has made no name.
- Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming, a disciple of Confucius, style Tzu-yü;
- vi. 12, would not take a short cut.
- Tien, xi. 25 = Tseng Hsi, whom see.
- Ting, Duke, ruler of Lu, whilst Confucius was in office, reigned 509-495 b.c.;
- Tsai Wo, a disciple of Confucius, name Tsai Yü, style Tzu-wo, died 480 b.c.;
- Tsai Yü: see Tsai Wo.
- Tsang Wen, a minister of Lu;
- Tsang Wu-chung, a minister of Lu, in the time of Confucius's father;
- Tseng Hsi, a disciple of Confucius, name Tseng Tien, style Hsi, the father of Tseng-tzu;
- xi. 25, the Master sides with him in his wish.
- Tseng-tzu (the Master, or philosopher Tseng), a disciple of Confucius, name Tseng Shen, style Tzu-yü, born in Lu, 505 b.c., died 437 b.c.;
- i. 4, questions himself thrice daily;
- i. 9, tells how to revive the good in men;
- iv. 15, says Master's teaching hangs on faithfulness and fellow-feeling;
- viii. 3, when sick tells his disciples to uncover his feet and arms;
- viii. 4, says when man must die his words are good;
- viii. 5, when we can, to ask those that cannot;
- viii. 6, says a man is a gentleman if no crisis can corrupt him;
- viii. 7, says a knight had need be strong and bold;
- xi. 17, is dull;
- xii. 24, says a gentleman gathers friends by culture;
- xiv. 28, says a gentleman is bent on keeping his place;
- xix. 16, says Tzu-chang is so magnificent;
- xix. 17, says man shows what is in him in mourning a near one;
- xix. 18, says Meng Chuang in not changing his father's rule is hard to rival;
- xix. 19, tells Yang Fu not to be puffed with joy.
- Tso Ch'iu-ming, v. 24, an ancient, his view of what is shameful.
- Tung Meng, or East Meng, a mountain in Lu, at the foot of which lay the small state of Chuan-yü, whose ruler had the right to sacrifice to the mountain, xvi. 1.
- Tzu-chang, a disciple of Confucius, name Chuan-sun Shih, style Tzu-chang, born 504 b.c.;
- ii. 18, told how pay comes;
- ii. 23, told how far the future can be known;
- v. 18, asks whether Tzu-wen had love;
- xi. 15, goes too far;
- xi. 17, is smooth;
- xi. 19, asks the way of a good man;
- xii. 6, asks what is insight;
- xii. 10, asks how to raise the mind;
- xii. 14, asks what is kingcraft;
- xii. 20, asks what is eminence;
- xiv. 43, asks what is meant by Kao-tsung not speaking for three years;
- xv. 5, asks how to get on;
- xv. 41, asks, 'Is this the way to treat a music-master?';
- xvii. 6, asks what is love;
- xix. 1, defines a knight;
- xix. 2, says goodness blindly clutched is nought;
- xix. 3, asked about friendship by Tzu-hsia's disciples;
- xix. 15, Tzu-yu thinks him void of love;
- xix. 16, his magnificence;
- xx. 2, asks how men should be governed.
- Tzu-chien, a disciple of Confucius, name Fu Pu-ch'i, style Tzu-chien;
- v. 2, what a gentleman he is!
- Tzu-ch'an, chief minister of Cheng in the time of Confucius;
- Tzu-ch'in, a disciple of Confucius, name Ch'en K'ang, style Tzu-ch'in, or Tzu-k'ang, born 512 b.c.;
- Tzu-fu Ching-po, minister to the Chi;
- Tzu-hsi, xiv. 10, chief minister to the state of Ch'u. He refused to be appointed successor to the throne in place of the true heir; but did not oppose his master's faults, and prevented him employing Confucius.
- Tzu-hsia, a disciple of Confucius, name Pu Shang, style Tzu-hsia, born 507 b.c.;
- i. 7, says a man who knows how to do his duty is learned;
- ii. 8, told that a son's manner is of importance;
- iii. 8, the Master can talk of poetry to him;
- vi. 11, told to read to become a gentleman;
- xi. 2, was a man of culture;
- xi. 15, does not go far enough;
- xii. 5, says all within the four seas are brethren;
- xii. 22, says Shun raised Kao-yao, and evil vanished;
- xiii. 17, when governor of Chü-fu asks how to rule;
- xix. 3, says cling to worthy friends;
- xix. 4, says small ways end in mire;
- xix. 5, says he who recalls each day his faults is fond of learning;
- xix. 6, says in wide learning and singleness of aim love is found;
- xix. 7, says through study a gentleman reaches truth;
- xix. 8, says the vulgar gloss their faults;
- xix. 9, says a gentleman alters thrice;
- xix. 10, says a gentleman will not lay on burdens before he is trusted;
- xix. 11, says if we keep within the bounds of honour, we may ignore propriety;
- xix. 12, says, Should a gentleman's training bewilder him?;
- xix. 13, says a scholar with his spare strength should serve the crown.
- Tzu-hua: see Kung-hsi Hua.
- Tzu-kao, xi. 24: see Ch'ai.
- Tzu-kung, a disciple of Confucius, name Tuan-mu Tz'u, style Tzu-kung, born 520 b.c.;
- i. 10, tells how the Master learns about government;
- i. 15, asks were it well to be poor but no flatterer;
- ii. 13, told that a gentleman sorts words to deeds;
- iii. 17, wishes to do away with sheep offering at new moon;
- v. 3, is a vessel;
- v. 8, cannot aspire to Yen Yüan;
- v. 11, wishes not to do unto others what he would not wish done to him;
- v. 12, not allowed to hear the Master on life or the Way of Heaven;
- v. 14, asks why K'ung-wen was styled cultured;
- vi. 6, is intelligent, and so fit to govern;
- vi. 28, asks whether to treat the people with bounty were love;
- vii. 14, will ask the Master whether he is for the King of Wei;
- ix. 6, says the Master is many sided;
- ix. 12, asks whether a beautiful stone should be hidden away;
- xi. 2, was a talker;
- xi. 12, was fresh and frank;
- xi. 15, asks whether Shih or Shang is the better man;
- xi. 18, hoards up substance;
- xii. 7, asks what is kingcraft;
- xii. 8, says no team overtakes the tongue;
- xii. 23, asks about friends;
- xiii. 20, asks what is a good crown servant;
- xiii. 24, asks were it right for a man to be liked by all;
- xiv. 18, thinks Kuan Chung showed want of love;
- xiv. 31, would compare one man with another;
- xiv. 37, asks what the Master means by no man knowing him;
- xv. 2, thinks the Master a man who learns much;
- xv. 9, asks how to attain to love;
- xv. 23, asks whether one word can cover the duty of man;
- xvii. 19, says were Master silent, what could disciples tell;
- xvii. 24, asks whether a gentleman hates;
- xix. 20, says the wickedness of Chou was not so great;
- xix. 21, says a prince's faults are like the darkening of sun or moon;
- xix. 22, says the lore of Wen and Wu lives in men;
- xix. 23, Shu-sun thinks him greater than Confucius;
- xix. 24, says the Master cannot be cried down;
- xix. 25, says none can come up to the Master.
- Tzu-lu, a disciple of Confucius, name Chung Yu, style Tzu-lu, or Chi-lu, born 543 b.c., died 484 b.c.;
- ii. 17, told what is understanding;
- v. 6, the Master would take him with him to scour the seas;
- v. 7, the Master cannot say that he has love;
- v. 13, before he could carry a thing out, dreaded to hear more;
- v. 25, tells his wishes;
- vi. 6, is firm, and so could govern;
- vi. 26, displeased at Master seeing Nan-tzu;
- vii. 10, asks the Master whom he would like to help him command an army;
- vii. 18, does not answer the Duke of She's question about Master;
- vii. 34, asks leave to pray when the Master is ill;
- ix. 11, makes disciples act as ministers;
- ix. 26, would stand unabashed in a tattered cloak;
- x. 18, gets on scent with Master;
- xi. 2, was a statesman;
- xi. 11, asks about death;
- xi. 12, will die before his time;
- xi. 14, what has his lute to do twanging at Master's door?
- xi. 17, is coarse;
- xi. 21, asks shall he carry out all that he learns;
- xi. 23, is a tool, not a statesman;
- xi. 24, the Master hates his glib tongue;
- xi. 25, wishes for charge of a state crushed by great neighbours;
- xii. 12, never slept over a promise;
- xiii. 1, asks how to rule;
- xiii. 3, says King of Wei looks to the Master to govern;
- xiii. 28, asks when can a man be called a knight;
- xiv. 13, asks what were a full-grown man;
- xiv. 17, says Kuan Chung showed want of love;
- xiv. 23, asks how to serve the king;
- xiv. 38, slandered by Liao;
- xiv. 41, spends a night at Shih-men;
- xiv. 45, asks what is a gentleman;
- xv. 1, cannot hide his vexation;
- xv. 3, told how few know great-heartedness;
- xvi. 1, is minister to the Chi, when he proposes to attack Chuan-yü;
- xvii. 5, asks how could the Master join Kung-shan;
- xvii. 7, asks how could the Master join Pi Hsi;
- xvii. 8, asked has he heard the six words and the six they sink into;
- xvii. 23, asks does a gentleman honour courage;
- xviii. 6, asks Ch'ang-chü where the ford is;
- xviii. 7, meets an old man bearing a basket.
- Tzu-sang Po-tzu, vi. 1, a man of Lu, is lax.
- Tzu-wen, v. 18, chief minister of Ch'u, his characteristics.
- Tzu-yu, a disciple of Confucius, name Yen Yen, style Tzu-yu, born 510 b.c.;
- ii. 7, told that feeding parents is not the whole duty of a son;
- iv. 26, says nagging at princes brings disgrace;
- vi. 12, when governor of Wu-ch'eng has Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming;
- xi. 2, was a man of culture;
- xvii. 4, encourages music in Wu-ch'eng;
- xix. 12, says Tzu-hsia's disciples can sprinkle the floor;
- xix. 14, says mourning should only stretch to grief;
- xix. 15, says Tzu-chang is void of love.
- Tzu-yü, xiv. 9, a lord of Cheng, polished the decrees.
- T'ai, a mountain, iii. 6.
- T'ai-po, eldest son of King T'ai of Chou. His brother was the father of King Wen, whose son King Wu dethroned Chou Hsin and founded the Chou dynasty, that was reigning in China in Confucius's time: see note to viii. 1;
- viii. 1, thrice he declined the throne.
- T'ang, viii. 20, the dynastic title of the Emperor Yao.
- T'ang, the founder of the Shang dynasty, reigned 1766-53 b.c.;
- T'eng, xiv. 12, a small state: Meng Kung-ch'o not fit to be minister of.
- T'o, an officer of Wei holding a post in the temple;
- Ts'ai, a state, xi. 2, xviii. 9.
- Ts'ui, v. 18, a lord of Ch'i, murdered his lord, 547 b.c.
- Tz'u: see Tzu-kung.
- Wang-sun Chia, a minister of Wei;
- Wei, one of the three great families that governed the state of Chin;
- xiv. 12, Meng Kung-ch'o fit to be steward of.
- Wei, xviii. 1, a small state in western China.
- Wei, another state in China, ix. 14, xiii. 7, 8, 9, xiv. 42, xix. 22.
- Wei, King of: see note to vii. 14;
- Wei, the lord of, xviii. 1, an elder brother by a concubine of the tyrant Chou Hsin (reigned 1154-22 b.c.), last of the Yin dynasty. He fled from court, since he could not improve his brother.
- Wei-sheng Kao, v. 23, begs vinegar from another to give to beggar.
- Wei-sheng Mou, xiv. 34, an old man who had fled the world, asks how Confucius finds roosts to roost on.
- Wen, Duke of Chin, reigned 636-28 b.c., the leading man in China in his day,
- xiv. 16, was deep but dishonest.
- Wen, King, Duke of Chou, born 1231 b.c., died 1135 b.c., the father of King Wu, founder of the Chou line of emperors;
- Wu, iii. 25, the music of King Wu, less noble than that of Shun.
- Wu, xviii. 9, tambourine master of Lu, crossed the Han.
- Wu, King, the founder of the Chou dynasty, reigned 1122-15 b.c.;
- Wu-ch'eng, a small town of Lu;
- Wu-ma Ch'i, a disciple of Confucius, name Wu-ma Shih, style Tzu-ch'i, vii. 30.
- Yang, xviii. 9, assistant bandmaster of Lu, crossed the sea.
- Yang Fu, xix. 19, a disciple of Tseng-tzu, made judge.
- Yang Huo, chief minister of the Chi, with whom he was long all-powerful; on one occasion he imprisoned his master; in 501 b.c. he was forced to leave Lu;
- Yao, the first Emperor of China (2357-2255 b.c.);
- Yen, xvii. 4, = Tzu-yu.
- Yen Lu, xi. 7, father of Yen Yüan, asks for Master's carriage to provide an outer coffin.
- Yen P'ing, v. 16, was versed in friendship.
- Yen Yu, xix. 12 = Tzu-yu.
- Yen Yüan (514-483 b.c.), the favourite disciple of Confucius, name Yen Hui, style Tzu-yüan;
- ii. 9, is no dullard;
- v. 8, Tzu-kung cannot compare with him;
- v. 25, tells his wishes to the Master;
- vi. 2, made no mistake twice;
- vi. 5, for three months together did not sin against love;
- vi. 9, his mirth under hardship;
- vii. 10, could both fill a post and live happy without;
- ix. 10, says, As I gaze it grows higher;
- ix. 19, was never listless when spoken to;
- ix. 20, had never been seen to stop;
- xi. 2, was of noble life;
- xi. 3, the Master got no help from him;
- xi. 6, was fond of learning;
- xi. 7, dies: his father asks for the Master's carriage;
- xi. 8, dies: the Master says, I am undone;
- xi. 9, dies: the Master overcome by grief;
- xi. 10, the disciples bury him in state;
- xi. 18, is almost faultless;
- xi. 22, would not brave death whilst his Master lives;
- xii. 1, asks what is love;
- xv. 10, asks how to rule a kingdom.
- Yi, xiv. 6, a famous archer of the Hsia dynasty, who slew the emperor and usurped his throne, but was afterwards killed in his turn.
- Yi, iii. 24, a small town on the borders of Wei: the warden says Confucius is a warning bell.
- Yi-yi, xviii. 8, lived in hiding, but gave the rein to his tongue.
- Yi-yin, xii. 22 (and note), made minister, and evil vanished.
- Yin dynasty (2205-1766 b.c.), also called Shang, ii. 23, iii. 9, 21, viii. 20, xv. 10, xviii. 1.
- Yu, the name of Tzu-lu, whom see.
- Yu Jo, a disciple of Confucius, style Tzu-jo, sometimes called Yu-tzu, the philosopher Yu, born 520 b.c.;
- Yu-tzu: seeYu Jo.
- Yung, v. 4: see Chung-kung.
- Yü, viii. 20, the dynastic title of Shun, whom see.
- Yü, xv. 6, a minister of Wei, his straightness.
- Yü, xvii. 21 = Tsai Wo.
- Yü, an ancient emperor (reigned 2205-2197 b.c.), founder of the Hsia dynasty, chosen by Shun as his successor;
- Yü-chung, the younger brother of T'ai-po. He accompanied him in his flight to the wild tribes of Wu (the country round Shanghai), in order to let the third brother come to the throne, and succeeded T'ai-po as ruler of that people;
- xviii. 8, lived in hiding, but gave the rein to his tongue.
- Yüan Jang, an old, eccentric acquaintance of Confucius;
- xiv. 46, awaits the Master squatting.
- Yüan Ssu, a disciple of Confucius, name Yüan Hsien, style Tzu-ssu, born 516 b.c.;